Jumaat, 30 Oktober 2009

abstrak : persepsi

Roslan Kamarudin (Penyelia : Encik Warnoh Katiman)

PERSEPSI guru-guru kanan terhadap pengetua di dalam pengurusan kewangan sekolah


Pentadbiran kewangan sekolah melibatkan urusan perancangan, merangka program, belanjawan dan menilai program itu. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah Kuantitatif yang berasaskan pendekatan model input-out-put. Selain itu kaedah kualitatif iaitu temubual, pemerhatian dan pemantauan juga digunakan. Rekabentuk kajian ini adalah menggunakan model kerangka kajian Input-output sistem dan matlamat, di mana input pengurusan kewangan yang baik adalah berdasarkan kepada empat faktor iaitu i) merancang, ii) merangka program, iii) belanjawan/merancang belanjawan dan iv) menilai. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan pandangan dan maklumat daripada responden berhubung dengan pengurusan kewangan oleh pengetua di sekolah-sekolah. Kajian ini juga cuba mendapatkan pandangan guru-guru kanan untuk mengetahui sejauhmana pengurusan kewangan yang dipraktikkan oleh pengetua di sekolahnya berkesan. Pengumpulan data telah dijalankan dengan menggunakan soal selidik dan temu bual serta pemerhatian. Soal selidik adalah menggunakan 50 item. Kajian ini berbentuk tinjauan deskriptif. Jadual peratusan, kekerapan dan min digunakan untuk memberikan gambaran yang lebih jelas tentang dapatan kajian. Kajian ini dijalankan di sekolah-sekolah menengah di Daerah Jempol Negeri Sembilan. Responden kajian adalah terdiri daripada guru-guru kanan iaitu guru penolong kanan pentadbiran (GPK 1), guru penolong kanan hal ehwal murid (GPK Hem/GPK II), guru penolong kanan kokurikulum (GPK III), penyelia petang, guru-guru kanan mata pelajaran yang terdiri daripada guru kanan bahasa, sains dan matematik, kemanusiaan dan guru kanan teknik dan vokasional di 14 buah sekolah menengah di Daerah Jempol. Di dalam aspek ilmu, pengalaman dan kursus yang disertai oleh pengetua, dapatan menunjukkan guru-guru kanan mempersepsikan masih terdapat pengetua kurang ilmu, pengalaman dan kursus tentang kewangan. Dapatan juga menunjukkan terdapat juga pengetua yang tidak cekap dalam mengamalkan aspek merancang di dalam pengurusan kewangan. Begitu juga dalam aspek merangka program, belanjawan/merancang perbelanjaan dan menilai di dalam pengurusan kewangan masih lagi ditahap yang lemah dan perlu diperbetulkan. Secara amnya, guru-guru kanan telah mempersepsikan pengetua masih kurang mengamalkan aspek seperti yang ditekankan dalam model PPBS dan pengetua perlu diberi latihan yang secukupnya.


Salim Sulaiman (Penyelia : Dr. Hj. Mohammed Sani Hj. Ibrahim)

PERANAN pengetua dan pasukan kerja untuk meningkatkan kecemerlangan pendidikan: kajian persepsi guru-guru sekolah menengah di daerah Kemaman, Terengganu.


Kepimpinan dan pasukan kerja adalah faktor yang boleh menjamin kejayaan kepada sesuatu organisasi. Kepimpinan yang efektif dan cekap sentiasa diperlukan untuk meningkatkan keberkesanan sesuatu organisasi. Manakala pasukan kerja pula merupakan ramuan yang penting untuk mencapai kecemerlangan dalam organisasi. Dapatan daripada penyelidikan ini menunjukkan kepemimpinan pengetua dan pasukan kerja yang berkesan sangat diperlukan untuk meningkatkan kecemerlangan pendidikan. Kajian ini melibatkan responden seramai 100 orang guru daripada sekolah menengah daerah Kemaman, Terengganu. Tujuan kajian ini ialah untuk melihat perhubungan antara Kepimpinan Multi - dimensi dan pasukan kerja berdasarkan teori pengurusan berasaskan sekolah dalam usaha untuk meningkatkan kecemerlangan organisasi pendidikan. Bagi tujuan pengumpulan data kaedah soal selidik skala Likert telah digunakan. Data pula telah dianalisa secara statistik menggunakan empat kaedah iaitu Ujian t, ANOVA sehala, Penjadualan silang dan Pekali korelasi Pearson untuk menunjukkan perhubungan antara pembolehubah. Secara umumnya terdapat bukti yang jelas menunjukkan objektif kajian tercapai. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan terdapatnya perhubungan yang signifikan antara Kepimpinan Multi dimensi dan pasukan kerja dalam usaha mencapai kecemerlangan dalam bidang pendidikan. Inovasi dan perubahan perlu sentiasa berlaku dalam bidang pengurusan pendidikan. Keseluruhannya kajian ini dianggap berjaya dalam konteks penyelidikan pendidikan.


PEE YING SHYA (Penyelia : Dr. Mohammed Sani Hj. Ibrahim)

PERSEPSI guru terhadap kepentingan penyeliaan pengajaran dalam perkembangan profesionalisme guru


Kajian ini bertujuan untuk meninjau pengaruh beberapa faktor demografi seperti jantina, umur, kelulusan akademik dan pengalaman mengajar serta faktor pendekatan penyeliaan pengajaran yang digunakan ke atas persepsi guru terhadap kepentingan penyeliaan pengajaran dalam perkembangan profesionalisme guru. Satu set soal selidik yang terdiri daripada tiga bahagian utama digunakan sebagai alat kajian. Indeks kebolehpercayaan bagi Bahagian B dan Bahagian C alat kajian ini masing-masing ialah 0.9002 dan 0.8999. Sampel kajian tinjauan ini dipilih secara rawak berstrata dan sejumlah 247 orang guru yang sedang bertugas di 11 buah sekolah menengah kebangsaan Gred A di daerah Hulu Langat, Selangor telah terpilih. Data yang diperolehi dianalisis dengan bantuan perisian komputer melalui program SPSS PC For Windows. Statistik yang digunakan adalah statistik deskriptif yang melibatkan pengukuran frekuensi, skor min, sisihan piawai dan peratusan serta statistik infrensi yang melibatkan Ujian-t dan Ujian ANOVA Satu Hala pada aras kesignifikanan p<0.05. Berdasarkan persoalan kajian kedua, hipotesis nol Ho1, Ho2 dan Ho4 didapati benar dan diterima, tetapi hipotesis nol Ho3 didapati tidak benar dan ditolak. Ini bermakna faktor demografi jantina, umur dan pengalaman mengajar tidak mempengaruhi persepsi guru tetapi sebaliknya faktor demografi kelulusan akademik mempengaruhi persepsi guru. Keputusan ujian hipotesis nol Ho5 pada persoalan ketiga didapati tidak benar dan ditolak. Dapatan ini menunjukkan bahawa faktor pendekatan penyeliaan pengajaran yang dilakukan ke atas guru mempengaruhi persepsi mereka. Dapatan kajian juga mendapati guru yang diselia secara klinikal beranggapan bahawa penyeliaan pengajaran adalah amat penting dalam perkembangan profesionalisme guru. Keputusan kajian ini memberikan satu gambaran kepada warga pendidik bahawa untuk melahirkan guru yang mempunyai tahap profesional tinggi, dicadangkan supaya satu model penyeliaan yang lebih sistematik dan tekal disediakan. Di samping itu, guru-guru perlu juga didedahkan kepada konsep dan matlamat penyeliaan pengajaran yang sebenar. Ini bukan sahaja dapat memperkembangkan guru secara berterusan, malah membina persekitaran sekolah yang konduksif untuk pembelajaran.


ZAWAKHIR MOHAMED SHAHAROUN

PERSEPSI guru kanan terhadap amalan pengetua dalam pengurusan wang bantuan kerajaan di sekolah : kajian di lima buah sekolah menengah di daerah Seremban - Port Dicskon (Penyelia : En. Warnoh Katiman)
pentadbiran wang bantuan kerajaan di sekolah yang melibatkan pembelian dan perolehan meliputi aspek perancangan dan membuat keputusan belanjawan sekolah yang efektif. Ia melibatkan urusan merancang, merangka program, belanjawan dan menilai program tersebut. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah kuantitatif yang berasaskan pendekatan model input-output. Selain itu kaedah kualitatif secara temubual dan semakan dokumen perakaunan sekolah bagi wang bantuan kerajaan juga dijalankan. Rekabentuk kajian ini adalah menggunakan model kerangka kajian input-output, sistem dan matlamat. Input yakni sumber maklumat, bahan dan wang bantuan kerajaan akan melalui proses transformasi yakni bawah pengurusan pengetua yang mana proses tersebut melibatkan amalan merancang, merangka program, belanjawan dan menilai untuk melahirkan output yakni dokumen perakaunan yang teratur dan fizikal sekolah yang baik. Tujuan kajian ini adalah bagi melihat keberkesanan pengetua merancang dan mengurus wang bantuan kerajaan dalam pengurusan kewangan sekolah, dari perspektif guru kanan dan meninjau masalah pengurusan wang bantuan kerajaan dari perspektif pengetua. Pengumpulan data telah dijalankan dengan menggunakan soal selidik dan temubual serta pemerhatian dokumen. Soal selidik menggunakan 28 item. Kajian ini berbentuk tinjauan diskriptif. Jadual peratusan, kekerapan dan min digunakan untuk memberikan gambaran yang lebih jelas tentang dapatan kajian. Kajian ini dijalankan di lima buah sekolah menengah di daerah Seremban dan Port Dickson di Negeri Sembilan. Responden kajian terdiri daripada guru-guru kanan iaitu Guru Penolong Kanan Pentadbiran (GPK1) Guru Penolong Kanan (HEM), ketua-ketua bidang, ketua-ketua Panitia mata Pelajaran dan Guru Pusat Sumber Sekolah. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan pengetua adalah seorang yang berwibawa kerana dapat menguruskan pentadbiran wang bantuan kerajaan di sekolah dengan berkesan. Dapatan kajian juga menunjukkan pengetua mengamalkan pengurusan kewangan yang berkesan dalam aspek tanggungjawab merancang, pemilihan pembelian dan pengawalan kewangan sekolah. Walau bagaimanapun dalam aspek pilihan alternatif, dapatan menunjukkan peranan pengetua adalah kurang berkesan. Secara amnya guru-guru kanan mempersepsikan pengurusan wang bantuan kerajaan yang ditadbirkan oleh pengetua adalah berkesan tetapi tahapnya perlu dipertingkatkan lagi khasnya dalam aspek perancangan dan pemilihan alternatif.



Saedan Abd. Karim – ( Penyelia : Prof. Madya Rashidi Azizan )

PERSEPSI guru terhadap program perkembangan staf (PPS) : tinjauan di empat buah sekolah rendah di Zon Keramat, Kuala Lumpur

kajian ini bertujuan mengenal pasti persepsi guru tentang Program Perkembangan Staf (PPS) peringkat sekolah. Objektif khusus kajian ini adalah untuk mengenalpasti tahap pelaksanaan PPS peringkat sekolah, pandangan guru tentang pentingnya PPS peringkat sekolah dan tahap sokongan pihak pengurusan sekolah terhadap PPS. Ia juga bertujuan untuk melihat perbezaan tahap pelaksanaan PPS di sekolah dan tahap sokongan pihak pengurusan sekolah terhadap PPS dan melihat perbezaan persepsi guru tentang pentingnya PPS peringkat sekolah. Selain itu, kajian ini juga cuba mengenal pasti hubungan antara tahap sokongan pihak pengurusan dengan tahap pelaksanaan PPS dan persepsi guru tentang pentingnya PPS peringkat sekolah. Sampel kajian ini terdiri daripada 77 orang guru terlatih daripada empat buah sekolah rendah/kebangsaan di Zon Keramat, Kuala Lumpur. Data-data diperolehi melalui soal selidik. Kaedah deskriptif (kekerapan dan min) serta ‘inferential’ (Ujian t, Anova Sehala dan Korelasi Pearson) telah digunakan untuk menganalisis data. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan perlaksanaan PPS di sekolah masih berada di tahap yang agak rendah, sebahagian besar guru menganggap PPS adalah penting dari segi mempertingkatkan profesionalisme keguruan mereka dan tahap sokongan pihak pengurusan terhadap PPS adalah ditahap sederhana. Dapatan kajian juga menunjukkan wujudnya perbezaan yang signifikan antara tahap perlaksanaan PPS berdasarkan gred sekolah dan antara tahap perlaksanaan PPS mengikut saiz sekolah. Terdapat juga perbezaan yang signifikan antara tahap sokongan pihak pengurusan sekolah terhadap PPS berdasarkan saiz sekolah. Dapatan kajian juga menunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang sederhana kuat antara tahap sokongan pihak pengurusan sekolah dengan tahap perlaksanaan PPS. Hubungan yang sederhana kuat juga terdapat antara tahap sokongan pihak pengurusan sekolah dengan persepsi guru tentang pentingnya PPS di sekolah. Berdasarkan dapatan kajian ini adalah dicadangkan pihak pengurusan sekolah khususnya Guru Besar sekolah memberi perhatian yang serius terhadap perancangan dan perlaksanaan PPS kerana dapatan menunjukkan sebahagian besar guru mempunyai pandangan positif terhadap pentingnya PPS di sekolah. Di samping itu, dicadangkan juga agar Guru Besar dan guru-guru PK diberi pendedahan berhubung dengan prosedur perancangan dan pengurusan PPS yang berkesan. Seterusnya disarankan juga agar pihak pengurusan atasan sama ada di peringkat Kementerian Pendidikan, Jabatan Pendidikan Negeri dan Zon/Daerah memberi sokongan moral dan sumber kepada pihak sekolah untuk menggalakkan dan membolehkan sekolah melaksanakan PPS yang berkesan di sekolah masing-masing.



. JULITA LIWAN – ( Penyelia : Encik Warnoh Katiman )

PERANAN guru kanan mata pelajaran dan masalah dalam pelaksanaan pengurusan kurikulum di sekolah
Kajian ini bertujuan melihat peranan serta masalah yang dihadapi oleh Guru Kanan Mata Pelajaran dalam pelaksanaan pengurusan kurikulum di sekolah. Selain itu, kajian ini juga bertujuan mendapatkan cadangan bagi mengatasi masalah yang dihadapi oleh Guru Kanan Mata Pelajaran. Aspek-aspek pengurusan kurikulum yang diberi tumpuan ialah perancangan pengurusan kurikulum, kepimpinan panitia mata pelajaran, penyeliaan pengajaran, kepimpinan pengajaran, pengurusan persatuan dan kelab akademik, penyediaan prasarana pusat sumber sekolah serta peperiksaan dan penilaian. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah tinjauan dengan menggunakan instrumen soal selidik ke atas 223 orang guru di sekolah menengah gred A daerah Kuala Selangor, Selangor. Analisis deskriptif dalam bentuk min dan peratusan diguna bagi menerangkan latar belakang dan persepsi responden. Statistik inferensi iaitu Ujian-t dan ANOVA Satu Hala pada aras p <0.05 digunakan untuk melihat pengaruh faktor demografi ke atas persepsi responden. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan Guru Kanan Mata Pelajaran telah melaksanakan peranan dalam pelaksanaan pengurusan kurikulum pada tahap yang memuaskan. Manakala masalah yang dihadapi oleh Guru Kanan Mata Pelajaran ialah beban tugas yang berat serta kurang diberi pendedahan dalam aspek pengurusan kurikulum. Antara cadangan yang diberikan oleh responden bagi mengatasi masalah tersebut ialah bekerjasama dengan guru-guru di bawah bidang masing-masing serta memberi kursus atau latihan dalam perkhidmatan dalam aspek pengurusan kurikulum di sekolah. Keputusan terhadap pengujian hipotesis menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbezaan min yang signifikan dalam min skor persepsi guru-guru terhadap peranan Guru Kanan Mata Pelajaran dalam pelaksanaan pengurusan kurikulum di sekolah mengikut jantina, umur dan pengalaman mengajar guru-guru.


Mohd Amin Sulaiman – ( Penyelia : Prof. Dr. Robiah Sidin )

PERSEPSI guru dan pengetua tentang peranan unggul dan sebenar dalam penyeliaan pengajaran di SMK daerah Kuala Langat dan Sepang


Tujuan utama kajian ini ialah untuk mengenalpasti peranan unggul dan peranan sebenar yang dimainkan oleh pengetua dalam penyeliaan pengajaran di sekolah. Kajian ini juga bertujuan mengenalpasti perbezaan persepsi pengetua dan guru-guru mengenai penyeliaan pengajaran serta mendapatkan pandangan responden tentang penyeliaan pengajaran yang dijalankan oleh pengetua. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah tinjauan, menerusi soal selidik. Sampel kajian terdiri daripada 105 orang guru dan pengetua di sekolah-sekolah menengah kebangsaan di daerah Kuala Langat dan Sepang, Selangor. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif dan inferensi. Dapatan utama kajian ini ialah pengetua telah dapat melaksanakan sebahagian besar tugas penyeliaan pengajaran tetapi beberapa aspek penyeliaan khasnya dalam membantu meningkatkan profesionalisme guru hanya kadang-kadang sahaja dilaksanakan. Selain itu majority responden bersikap positif terhadap penyeliaan pengajaran oleh pengetua. Dapatan menunjukkan bahawa semakin tinggi nilai peranan unggul dan semakin kerap sesuatu peranan sebenar dilakukan oleh pengetua, maka semakin baik persepsi guru terhadap penyeliaan pengajaran pengetua. Dapatan kajian juga menunjukkan bahawa faktor demografi seperti jantina, umur dan pengalaman mengajar guru-guru secara dasarnya tidak memberi kesan ke atas persepsi guru-guru dalam penyeliaan pengajaran. Berdasarkan kajian ini penyelidik mencadangkan agar budaya dan amalan penyeliaan pengajaran diberi tumpuan di sekolah-sekolah dengan pengetua dan guru-guru diberi pendedahan sepenuhnya mengenai fungsi masing-masing dalam penyeliaan pengajaran agar penyeliaan pengajaran yang dilaksanakan benar-benar berkesan.


. Rosnas Che Mat – ( Penyelia : Dr. Hj. Mohammed Sani Hj. Ibrahim )

PENGURUSAN tugasan kerja rumah yang efektif mengikut persepsi pengetua dan guru besar


Kajian ini bertujuan untuk meninjau persepsi pengetua dan guru besar tentang pengurusan kerja rumah yang efektif. Focus kajian ialah kepada definisi dan konsep kerja rumah, polisi kerja rumah, tujuan kerja rumah, masa untuk belajar menyiapkan kerja rumah, amaun kerja rumah yang diberikan kepada pelajar, cara penilaian dan penyemakan kerja rumah, pemantauan kerja rumah, peranan ibu bapa, penggunaan teknologi maklumat dan kerja rumah dalam pengajaran bestari. Seramai 170 orang pengetua dan 242 orang guru besar di negeri Pahang dijadikan sebagai responden kajian. Kaedah tinjauan ini menggunakan soal selidik yang berdasarkan skala Likert. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan program SPSS Versi 10.0 for Windows. Statistik deskriptif melibatkan min, kekerapan dan peratus manakala statistik inferensi iaitu ujian t digunakan dalam kajian ini. Dapatan kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa kerja rumah merupakan tugas lanjutan yang diberikan oleh guru untuk disiapkan di luar waktu persekolahan sama ada di rumah atau di sekolah. Pengurusan kerja rumah yang efektif perlu disertai dengan polisi yang boleh melicinkan lagi proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran dan seterusnya boleh meningkatkan pencapaian pelajar. Amaun kerja rumah yang diberi seharusnya mengikut pencapaian pelajar. Penilaian, penyemakan dan pemantauan kerja rumah perlu untuk mendorong pelajar menyiapkan kerja rumah. Pengurusan kerja rumah secara talian terus (on line) memberi peluang pelajar meningkatkan kemahiran dalam teknologi maklumat. Dalam hal ini para pelajar, guru, ibu bapa dan pentadbir perlu memainkan peranan penting supaya matlamat pengurusan kerja rumah tercapai.


TEACHERS' perception to the roles or responsibility and leadership styles of heads of department as instructional leader : a case study in Sekolah Menengah Teknik Muar

The purpose of this study is to obtain information about teacher's perception and roles or the responsibility and the leadership styles of the Heads of departments in Sekolah Menengah Teknik Muar, Johor. One of the purposes of the study is to gather information about teachers' views on the recognition of the new 'middle managers' that is the Head of Departments. The LBDQ conceptual is used during the research. The respondents of the study comprise 81 teachers who are of academic teachers, technical and vocational teachers and home economic teachers. Data in this research are collected using questionnaire, informal interviews and survey by the researcher who has been teaching in this school. The questionnaire consists of 30 items of responsibilities or roles of the heads of department and 30 items using the "Leadership Behaviour Description Questionnaire". Descriptive and inferential statistics are used in analyzing the data. (1) There are significance differences on teachers' perception towards the leadership styles of the heads of department based on the gender categories (2) There is no significant difference on teachers' perception towards the roles and the responsibilities of the heads of department based on the gender categories (3) There is no significant difference based on teachers' age, service categories, teaching experiences towards the roles and responsibility of the heads of department (4) There no significant difference based on teachers' age, service categories, teaching experiences towards the leadership styles of the heads of department (5) There is a significant difference based on the teaching subject categories towards the leadership styles of the heads of department (6) There is no significant difference on teachers' perception towards the roles and the responsibility of the heads of department based on the teaching subjects categories (7) There is no correlation between teaching experiences and teachers age categories on the roles or the responsibilities of the heads of department (8) There is a correlation between teaching experiences and teachers age categories on the leadership styles of the heads of department. Findings for this study show that teachers do not have the clear knowledge about the roles and responsibilities of the new middle managers. Teachers who have a wide knowledge in teaching and technical teachers are the ones who have difficulties in accepting the heads of departments as their superior. Lastly, there are several suggestions that are being put forward by the researcher on how to improve teachers perception leadership, roles and responsibilities the heads of departments are must be given training and recognition by the ministry of education which is similar to those being given to the principals and senior assistants.



PRINCIPALS’ styles of communication from teachers’ perception

The aim of this study is to identify the styles of communication used by Secondary School principals as perceived by teachers in the Kuala Langat District of Selangor. Six styles of communication identified are Dynamic style, Control style, Structuring style, Equalitarian style, Relinquish style and Withdrawal style. This study is also designed to identify the relationship between communication style and teachers’ variables that is gender, age and teaching experience. The result of the study shows that the principals were using all styles of communication. However, the most frequently used is Dynamic style. This is followed by the Equalitarian style. The Dynamic and Equalitarian styles are also found to be the most acceptable communication styles by the teachers. The Control style is the least used and the least acceptable among the teachers. There are significant differences between male and female teachers pertaining to the Control style. Another significant difference is also found in the Equalitarian style between the teachers who were less than 29 years old and those who were more than 30 years old. There is no significant difference between teachers with less than 10 years teaching experience, with more than 10 years teaching experience and those with more than 20 years teaching experience toward the six communication styles.


THE perception of islamic studies teachers toward the role and involvement of principal in propagating dakwah activities for students of secondary schools in the district of Gemas









The study is conducted to deserve the perception of Islamic studies teacher toward the extent of the principal's participation in propagating dakwah activities for students of secondary schools in the district of Gemas. It is focused on the role played by these principals' in initiating dakwah activities through his effort, emphasizing on planning and achievement of goals, teachers welfare, providing moral support and activity evaluation, direct participation in the activities together with coordinating teacher and student and also his charisma as a trustee for the Ministry of Education. By doing so, indirectly his leadership style and commitment could be detected in his role and involvement in propagating dakwah activities among secondary students in Gemas. 52 Islamic studies teachers' in Gemas were the subjects of this study 12 males and 40 females. Since they are dakwah activity coordinators in school, no other teachers were involved. Questionnaires were used to obtain data and information from the subjects. The 5 point Likert scale' was to applied measure subject perceptions of their principals role and involvement in initiating students dakwah activities in school. Frequency, percentage and mean are used to analyse data obtained from the questionaires. In conclusion result from the study indicated that the principals' role and participation in propagating students dakwah activities in only at average level.



RESEARCH on teaching supervision practice in a grade schools in the district of Tampin : perception or principals and teachers


The purpose of this research was to survey the perceptions of principals and teachers in all the six A grade schools in the District of Tampin, Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus towards teaching supervisions. This research was also aimed at identifying if there is any significant difference in the teachers' perceptions towards the implementation level of clinical supervision based on gender, service category and teaching experience. All the six principals were involved in this study whilst 160 teachers were chosen based on stage sampling. The Clinical Supervision Model by Acheson and Gall (1980) was the framework of this research. Data was processed and analysed using the SPSS package. Descriptive (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential (T-test, ANOVA and Pearson Correlation) analyses were used in analysing the data. The result of this research indicated that, (1) the principals and teachers had highly positive perceptions towards the teaching and learning supervisions; (2) there was no significant difference among the teachers based on gender and teaching experience towards the necessity of teaching and learning supervisions but there was a significant difference based on service category; (3) principals have highly positive perceptions towards the implementation of teaching and learning supervisions and the professional growth of teachers. Whilst the teachers' perceptions towards the implementation level of the teaching and learning supervisions and their professional growth were at the average level; (4) there was no significant difference among the teachers perceptions based on gender, service category and teaching experience on the implementation level of conferency before supervision and supervision in class whilst there was a significant difference towards the implementation level of conferency after the supervision, based on the three demographic factors; and (5) Pearsons Correlation indicated a lightly strong correlation between the implementation level of class supervision and the perception among teachers towards the importance of teaching supervision.


COMMUNICATION style of primary head master : teacher' perception in Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan.











The purpose of this study is to determine the communication style of the headmaster in a primary school situated in the Semenyih district, namely Sekolah Kebangsaan Semenyih. The area of study is confined to the six communication style such as 'Control', 'Equalitarian', 'Structuring', 'Dynamic', 'Relinquish' and, 'Withdrawal'. Besides that, this study also relate the six communication style with the teachers gender, academic qualification and their experience. The above information is gathered through questionnaires that has been distributed to 59 teachers. The results of this study suggest firstly, among the six communications style that is often used by the headmaster to perceive teachers are the 'Structuring' style followed by the 'Control', 'Dynamic', 'Equalitarian', 'Withdrawal' and, 'Relinquish'. Secondly, the communication style that is often used by the teachers are the 'Equalitarian' style, followed by 'Dynamic', 'Relinquish', 'Control', 'Structuring' and, 'Withdrawal'. Thirdly, the headmaster communication style that is dislike by the teachers are the 'Withdrawal' style for the first choice, followed by 'Structuring', 'Control', 'Relinquish', 'Dynamic' and, 'Equalitarian'. Lastly, there is no significant relation between the teachers gender and academic qualification. Thus, through the teacher experience, there are two items in the data that show a different significant for item 1 and 2. Item 1 uses the direct way and speaks what is necessary, where as item 2 shows the open and sincere way of interaction with teachers above 10 years experience. The results of the survey show that teachers see communication style of headmaster and teachers are necessary. On the contray, the negative aspects of effective communication need due attention to facilitate the changes in the education system.



THE PERCEPTION of administrators, lecturers and supporting staff towards the status of organizational culture a study for all the MARA academic institutions under the control of MARA's commercial education division



The purpose of the study is to understand the prevailing organizational culture status that is being practiced by all the education institutions under the management of MARA's Commercial Education Division and also to determine the consensus of staffs' perception towards organizational culture. The staff of the division were categorized into three groups namely administrators, lecturers and supporting staff. The focus of the study is also to examine the relationship between the aspects of organizational culture and behavioural outcomes namely job satisfaction, group functioning and goal integration. This study is necessary to indicate some management guidelines to achieve organization effectiveness. Favourable cultures are to be upheld and improved while the problematic ones to be remedied. The data were collected using a reviced questionnaires drawn from the Survey of Organizations by Taylor and Bowers (1972). Five aspects of organizational culture practices were considered in the study comprising of organizational climate, job design, supervisory leadership, peer leadership and behavioural outcomes. This study involved a total of 124 respondents consisting of all the divisions's staff. In testing the perception's consensus (unformity) for every group of staff, sixteen hipotesis and been formed and tested at the 0.05 significant level. The results showed that MARA's Commercial Education Division has a favourable status for all aspects of organizational culture with the exception of organizational climate. Various levels of staff show a consensus perception towards the organizational climate, job design and behavioural outcomes but they perceived significantly on the aspects of supervisory leadership and peer leadership. This study also show that there is no significant difference between experiences and sex, and all aspects of organizational cultures. The aspects of organizational climate, job design and supervisory leadership are highly correlated and significant with the job satisfaction while peer leadership is highly correlated and significant with the group functioning (teamwork).


TEACHER'S perception towards principal's teaching supervision: a case study in the district of Besut, Terengganu


The purpose of this research is to observe teacher's perception of the teaching supervision by principal in the district of Besut. The study involves six grade A schools from eleven regulary daily school of various streams. This research is also meant to compare the perception of teachers based on demographic factors such as gender, age, academic qualification and teaching experience. The respondents in this research consist of thirty teachers selected from six schools. The data was collected using questionares and the quantitative method was used to analyze the data using `cross-tabulation' or `khi-square methods', t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result of this analysis shows that the majority of respondents agree with this type of supervision, since it could increase the teacher's teaching performance while achieving the teaching objectives. The respondents also think that the supervisors should have the competence to supervise and have a good relationship with the teachers. The results also show that there is no significant difference in perception of teachers based on demographic factors such as gender, age, academic qualification and teaching experience. Furthermore, all the respondents like the clinical supervision model.


THE ROLES of parent-teacher association in primary schools : teachers' perception

The objective of this study is describe teachers' perception of the functions of Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) in national primary school. The study also describes teachers' attitude and the relationship between the functions and activities of PTA with teachers' participation. The method of study is the survey method through the use of a questionnaire. The sample of study consists by 90 teachers from five primary school in Gemencheh, Negeri Sembilan. The data is analysed descriptively and inferentially. Among the main finding of the study are, firstly all teachers agree that the roles and activities of PTA have fulfilled the objective set, secondly that the teachers who are male, experienced, and those who live in the school vicinity show positive attitude towards the PTA and its activities. On basic of the responses gathered from interviews, the respondents are of the opinion that the involvement of parents and teachers need to be for the strengthened in order to enhance the school performance. The researcher suggests that the management of the PTA should be placed under the District Education Officer who will be able to supervise the effectiveness of all activities conducted by the PTA.



TEACHERS perception towards the principals in the schools financial administrations.



The schools financial administration involves the work of planning, program building, dudgeting and program analysing. This research uses Quantitative mode which is based of the input-output model. In addition, qualitative modes such as interviews and observations are practiced. This research in designed using the form of input-output system and goal where the input of good financial administration is based on four factors, i) planning (ii) program building (iii) budgeting/budget planning and (iv) analysing. The aim of this research is to get views and informations from respondents regarding the principals financial administrations in schools. It also tries to get teachers perception to know the effectiveness of the financial administrations practiced by the principals in schools. Gathering of data was based on questionnaire, interviews and observations. The questionnaires used 50 items. This research is descuptive in nature. Tables of percentages, mode and mean are used to give explicit picture of the research which is done in secondary in the district of Jempol, Negeri Sembilan. Respondents involve senior assistants for administrations (GPK 1), senior Assistants for Students affair (GPK HEM/GPK II), senior Assistants for co-curriculum (GPK III), Afternoon Supervisions, senior Assistants for subjects such as language, science and mathematics, social science an technic and vocational from 14 schools in Jempol. The result showed that many respondents feel that principals are still lacking in the aspects of knowledge, experience and financial courses attended. There are also incompetent principals in the aspects of financial administrations, so are the aspects of program building budgeting/budget planning and analysing of financial administration. These aspects are still weak and need to be upgraded. In general, senior assistants see principals as still lacking in practicing the aspects as stressed in the PPBS model and they need to be given ample courses.


TEACHERS' perception on the importance of supervision towards professional development


The main purpose in this study is to do a survey on the influence of demographic factors and supervision approaches that are used on teachers towards the importance of supervision in profesional development. The demographic factors are inclusive of sex, age, academic qualification and teaching experience. A set of research question, which contain three major parts, was used in this study. The reliability indexes for both Part B and Part C in the questionnaire were 0.9002 and 0.8999. The samples in this study were randomly selected which involved 247 teachers who teach in 11 Grade A national secondary school in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor. Data obtained were analysed with the aid of computer programme that is SPSS PC For Windows. The statistics used in this study were descriptive statistics which involved measurement of frequency, mean score, standard deviation and percentage, and the inference statistics which involved t-test and One-way ANOVA at the significant level of p<0.05. Based on the second research question, null hypothesis Ho1, Ho2 and Ho4 were true and accepted, but null hypothesis Ho3 was false and rejected. These results showed that demographic factor such as sex, age, and teaching experience did not influnenced the teachers' perception, but on the other hand, the demographic factor such as academic qualifications did influence the teachers' perception. The result of testing null hypothesis Ho5 based on the third research question was false and rejected. This finding showed that the supervision approaches used on teachers influenced teachers' perception. The results in this study also showed that teachers who were supervised under clinical supervision found that supervision is important in teachers' professional development. In general, the result of this study showed to educators that in order to produce a professional teacher, a systematic and and established supervision model has to be created. Besides that, it is recommended that teachers should be exposed to the concept and the purpose of supervision. These will ensure the continuous development of teachers, and eventually produce a conducive learning-centred school.

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