RELATIONSHIP between the principal's leadership style/behavior and the level of teacher's motivation : a survey
The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant relationship between the principal's leadership style as perceived by the teachers and the level of teacher's motivation. This study also attempted to determine if significant difference in teacher's motivation existed based on the teacher's sex, age, teaching experience, profesional qualification and job status. Of the 72 teachers selected, 55 teacher (76.3%) from Kolej Yayasan Pelajaran Mara (KYPM) in Bangi, Selangor participated in the study. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) was used to measure two dimensions of the leader behavior : initiating structure and consideration. A Questionnaire Measure of Individual Differences in Achieving Tendency (QMAT) was utilized to measure teacher's motivation. Pearson Correlation Coefficient, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test were used to test this hypothesis. The 0.05 level of significance was used to make decisions for rejecting or accepting the null hypothesis. The data analysis produced these findings: 1) There was significant relationship existed between the principal's leadership style/behavior and teacher's motivation, 2) There was significant difference between male and female teachers, 3) There was no significant difference between teacher's age group, 4) There was no significant difference between teacher's teaching experience group, 5) There was no significant difference between teacher's profesional qualification and 6) There was no significant difference between permanent and temporary teachers. From the finding of this study, it was concluded that teachers appear to be more highly motivated when they perceived their principals as practicing high initiating structure and high consideration. This study supports the notion that the principal's leadership style affected teacher's motivation.
TEACHERS’ reaction towards performance appraisal
The main aim of this study is to put forward suggestions for a better teachers’ appraisal criterions and to produce a performance appraisal cycle for teachers. A survey method using a questionnaires has been used to collect data. The reliability index for the items in the questionaires falls between 0.8285 and 0.8857. A total of 1000 respondents among secondary school teacher were selected randomly from Pulau Pinang, Kedah, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor, Wilayah Persekutuan, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka, Johor, Sabah dan Sarawak. The data was analysed with the SPSS PC 11.0 for windows programme. A descriptive statistic was utilized to get frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation. A one-way ANOVA has been used to see whether there are differences in reactions from teachers from the many zones. Inference statistics (Pearson correlation) was used by way of looking at correlation between variables. This study shows that a majority of teacher have accepted the performance appraisal criteria being used in the Borang JPA (Prestasi) 2/96 (mean 4.21), but the teachers do not agree with the process of the appraisal (mean 2.43). For the third question, a majority of teachers felt that the appraisal still needed amendments (mean 3.81). The null hypothesis Hol was found to be false and rejected. A reaction mean towards appraisal criteria for teachers in the south zone has been found to be different from the mean for teachers in the zone of Sabah and Sarawak. The null hypothesis Ho2 was found to be false and rejected. The reaction mean towards the positive and negative statement of the appraisal for the teachers in the south zone has been found to be different from the reaction mean for teachers in the zone of Sabah and Sarawak. Null hypothesis Ho3 was true and is accepted. The reaction mean towards the aspects needed to increase the effectiveness of the appraisal among teachers in the many zones found similar. The null hypothesis Ho4 is false and rejected. There was a correlation between the scores among teachers at varied achievement stages with the reaction scores of teachers towards appraisal criteria. The teachers score at varied achievement stages was found not to be correlated with the reaction scores towards positive and negative statement of appraisal, therefore null hypothesis Ho5 is found true and accepted. Teachers scores at varied achievement stages is found to have no correlation with the reaction towards the aspects needed to improve the effectiveness of the appraisal, therefore the null hypothesis Ho6 is true and accepted. The findings of this study has helped the researcher to come up with suggestions relevant to a better teachers appraisal criterias. The appraisal cycle has been produced to provide guidelines on the implementation of a more systematic teachers performance appraisal.
THE role of senior subject teachers and problem in implementing curriculum management in schools
The purpose of this study is to determine Senior Subject Teachers’ role and the problems they face in implementing curriculum management in schools. It is also aimed at gathering suggestions to solve problem faced by the Senior Subject Teachers’. The aspects focused in curriculum management are curriculum management planning, subject panel leadership, teaching supervision, teaching leadership, management of academic clubs and societies’ setting up of school resource center amenities, examination and evaluation. The survey method was used to gather information by using questionnaire on 223 teachers in a grade A secondary school in the district of Kuala Selangor, Selangor. Descriptive analysis of mean and percentage were used to assertain respondents’ ground and perceptions. T-test and One Way ANOVA with significant level of p<0.05 were used to determine the effect of demography on respondents’ perceptions. The result of this study indicated that the Senior Subject Teachers’ have implemented their roles in curriculum management at a satisfactory level. The problems faced by the Senior Subject Teachers include heavy workload and lack of exposure in curriculum management. Among the recommendations given by the respondents were working cooperatively with the teachers under their supervision and attending courses or inservice training in curriculum management in schools. The result also showed that they was no significant difference in teachers’ perceptions towards Senior Subject Teachers’ roles in implementing the curriculum management in schools according to gender, age and teaching experiences.
IDEAL and actual roles of the principals in school supervision as perceived by secondary school teachers and principals in the Kuala Langat and Sepang districts
This study was conducted to identify the school principals’ ideal and actual roles in teaching supervisions. The objectives of the research were to identify differences in perceptions between teachers and principals as well as to obtain their views regarding the matter. The method used for the study was the survey method and the instrument used to solicit opinion of the respondents was a questionnaire. One hundred and five (105) secondary school teachers and 15 principals in the Kuala Langat and Sepang district became the respondents for the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. The main finding of the study is that the principals were able to carry out most of the teaching supervisions. On the other hand, it was also found that a few aspects of supervision, especially in helping to enhance the teachers’ professionalism were only sometimes carried out by the principals. A mahority of the respondents responded positively towards the teaching supervision carried out by the principals. The finding of the study also show that demographic factors such as sex, age and the teachers’ teaching experience, basically, did not affect teachers’ perception of the teaching supervisions. Based on the study, the researcher suggests that the practice and culture of teaching supervisions should be given serious condiseration in schools. Principals and teachers roles in teaching supervision should be given maximum exposure to ensure its effectiveness.
THE implementation of empowerment by the principals to the senior subject teachers in the management of curriculum
The purpose of the study to explore and to ascertain the implementation of empowerment by the principals to the Senior Subject Teachers of Grade A Secondary schools in the district of Kuala Selangor, Selangor. The study was based on the perception of 222 respondents comprising Senior Subject Teachers and teachers towards the practice of empowerment of principals to the Senior Subject Teachers in the management of curriculum. Description towards the perception of teachers who are involved in the management and the implementation of curriculum in school could determint the extent in the approach of empowerment of principals which was proposed by the Ministry of Education and was implemented in schools involved. Five aspects of empowerment by the principals were the focused of this study i.e. Trust, Cultivation of Subordinate Latent Talent, Open Two Way Communication, Positive Attitudes Towards Subordinate and The Maturity in the Implementation Specific Task. The study was also to explore wether there exist the different in perception among Senior Subject Teachers and teachers of difference gender, age and the length of service towards empowerment from the principals to the Senior Subject Teachers. The result of the study indicated that principals from various schools under study had implemented empowerment to a level of `high’. The result also indicated the aspect of Cultivation of Subordinate Latent Talent was at the top of priority compared to another aspects of empowerment. The T-test indicated that no significant difference in the perception of Senior Subject Teachers and teachers towards empowerment by principals based on gender. Through One Way Analysis of Variance also showed that there was no significant difference in the perception of Senior Subject Teachers and teachers towards empowerment from the principals based on age and length of service.
THE efficient of homework management by principals and headmasters perception
The main purpose in this study is to do survey on the efficient management homework by principals and headmasters perception. The study focused on the definitions and concepts of the homework, the policies, the goals, the times or durations to finish the homework, the amount of homework, the evaluation and the standard of marking. This study also looked into the supervision, parents role, the use of information technology and the homework management in smart teaching. The respondents were 170 principals and 242 headmasters and they were selected randomly from schools in Pahang. Survey method using likert scale questionnaire was used as the research instrument. Data obtained were analysed with the aid of computer programme that is Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 10.0 for windows. The statistic used in this study were descriptive statistic which involved frequency, mean score, percentage and the inference statistic which involved t-test. The results of the study showed that homework is the continuation task given by teacher to finish after school hour either at home or at school. The well planned homework management should have policy to get great contribution in the effective teaching and learning process. The systematic homework management that expose to the students could improve their academic achievement. The amount howework given by the teacher will be according the students achievement level. Supervision, evaluation and the standard of the marking is very important to motivate student to finish their homework. On-line homework management give the students chance to improve their information technology skill. In this case, the students, teachers, parents and school administrators should play their important role to achieve the objectives of the homework programme.
THE DEGREE of participation in decision making process of teachers in teaching and management : A study at the secondary schools in Kluang District, Johor.
The purpose of this study was to gather information concerning the involvement of teachers in decision making process in the aspects of teaching and management. The management aspects studied were management in supervisory, financial, students’ affairs, co-curriculum and school-community. Respondents comprised aa total of 141 teachers selected at random from six secondary daily government schools in the district of Kluang, Johor and they are not included in the survey proper. This is a descriptive survey using a set of adapted research questionnaires. Data obtained were analysed with the aid of computer programme, the SPSS PC 7.5 for windows and presented using statistical procedures which include frequently tables, percentages, means and standard deviation. A preliminary survey done on 30 teachers from Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Jalan Mengkibol, Kluang Johor showed a high value of Alpha Cronbach, that is, 0.95. Results of the survey proper showed various degrees of involvement for the different aspects of management studied. The supervisory management showed the lowest in involvement in decision making process (Min = 2.23). The other aspects of management namely financial (Min = 3.0), students’ affairs (Min = 2.96), co-curriculum (Min = 3.15) and school-community (Min = 3.05) revealed a moderate level of teachers’ involvement in the decision making process. Thus, the school-community management revealed the highest involvement in decision making process whilst the supervisory aspect showed the lowest. The results of the survey also showed a high degree of involvement for all the teaching aspects studied. Hence, it can be deduced that teachers have a high involvement in decision making process in the aspect of teaching as compared to the aspect of management.
THE PERCEPTION of the primary school administrators towards teachers who undergo distance learning programe
The purpose of this research is to observe the perception of the primary school administrators towards teachers who undergo Distance Learning Program. The purpose of this research is to observe the perception of the administrators towards these teachers in expanding their knowledge, commitments toward their main responsibility and duties as well as suggestions on how to solve the problems that exist due to the existence of distance learning teachers in their school. The instrument used for this research is questionnaire administered to 101 administrators, at 34 primary schools in Kuantan district. Descriptive analysis in a minimum from and percentages are used to explain the ground and perception of the respondents. On the other hand, Inference Statistics, T-test and One Way ANOVA at p<0.05 are used to see the influence of demographic factor on the respondents’ perceptions. Based on the minimum average of the whole items, the results show that the administrators totally agree that teachers’ should improve their knowledge and professionalism through the Distance Learning Program. From the aspect of responsibility, performance and the quality of work, the administrators agreed that these teachers gave full commitment as well as their performance in their duties are satisfactory. The administrators also agreed that these teachers do give contribution and do not create problems to the school administration. The results of the T-test and One Way ANOVA show that there is no significant minimum discrepancy in the min score on the perception of the administrators in relation to the gender, age and experience of the respondents.