Sabtu, 27 Februari 2010

Emphasis on Teaching

Emphasis on Teaching
by Marshall Brain

What is Good Teaching?

All students have had hundreds of teachers in their lifetimes. A very few of these teachers they remember as being exceptionally good. What are the qualities that combine to create an excellent, memorable teacher? Why do some teachers inspire students to work three times harder than they normally would, while others inspire students to skip class? Why do students learn more from some teachers than others?

If you are trying to become a better teacher, these are important questions. This issue of "Emphasis on Teaching" focuses on the four essential qualities that distinguish exceptional teachers: knowledge, communication skills, interest, and respect for students.

An Experiment
Here's an experiment I have done in a number of my classes. The results may surprise you. Go into one of the classes you are teaching and have your students take out a sheet of paper. Ask them to list for you the qualities they feel are important in a good teacher. Ask them to identify the qualities they admire in the best teachers they have had. Then give the students enough time to think about it and write something down. Five minutes is good, but ten might be better. Let them answer the questions anonymously if they desire.

What you will get if you combine all of the responses is a fascinating collage of ideas. I have found that most of the responses fall into two specific categories: 1) a set of "core qualities" that students recognize in good teachers, and 2) a set of specific skills that are developed by good teachers.

"Core qualities" are the essential characteristics needed to be a good teacher. I would like to concentrate on the core qualities in this issue, and in the future discuss specific techniques that can be used to improve your classroom environment.

In every survey I have given, students consistently and clearly target as the number one quality of a good teacher exactly what you would expect: knowledge of the subject. You must be an expert in your field if you are going to be a good teacher at a university. This is a prerequisite.

The second core quality that good teachers possess is the ability to communicate their knowledge and expertise to their students. You may be the greatest expert ever in your field, but what would happen if you lectured in Latin? How much would your students learn?

It is a common misconception at the university level that knowledge of a subject is all that's required to be a good teacher; that the students should be willing and able to extract the meat from what you say regardless of how it is delivered (even if it is delivered in Latin). This might be true at the upper graduate level, but elsewhere it is definitely untrue. It is especially untrue at the undergraduate level. The teacher's job is to take advanced knowledge and make it accessible to the students. A good teacher allows students to understand the material, and to understand what it means (because it is one thing to understand how nuclear bombs work, but quite another to understand what nuclear bombs mean).

A good teacher can take a subject and help make it crystal clear to the students. A bad teacher can take that same material and make it impenetrable. Or a bad teacher can devote so little time and effort to preparation that the material presented is intrinsically confusing and disorganized. A good teacher is willing to expend the effort needed to find innovative and creative ways to make complicated ideas understandable to their students, and to fit new ideas into the context available to the student. A good teacher can explain complicated material in a way that students can understand and use.

There is a saying, "Give me a fish and I eat for a day, teach me to fish and I eat for a lifetime." This is the philosophy of a good teacher. Give your students an answer and they can solve one problem, but show students the techniques needed to find the answer for themselves and they can become self-sufficient in the field. Students need to be shown how to apply the new techniques you teach to problem solving.

A good teacher starts with a firm knowledge of the subject, and builds on that with a clarity and understanding designed to help students master the material. The best teachers then go one step further. Because good teachers are interested in the material being taught, they make the class interesting and relevant to the students. Knowledge is worthless unless it is delivered to the students in a form they can understand. But the effort expended making the material understandable is wasted if the students are asleep when it is delivered, or if the students can see no point in learning the material.

Good teachers recognize this, and work hard to make their material relevant. They show students how the material will apply to their lives and their careers. Bad teachers make material "relevant" by threatening students with failure on a test. Good teachers go far beyond this: they make students want to learn the material by making it interesting.

This is one of the things that makes research so important and vital to a university: research makes the ideas discussed in class exciting and important to the teacher, as well as to the students. If the teacher isn't interested in what's being taught, then why should the students be?

Good teachers always possess these three core qualities: knowledge, the ability to convey to students an understanding of that knowledge, and the ability to make the material interesting and relevant to students. Complementing these three is a fourth quality: good teachers have a deep-seated concern and respect for the students in the classroom. Why else would a teacher put in the time and effort needed to create a high quality class?

The creation of a good class requires an immense amount of work. You don't simply come up with clear explanations and examples and experiments for class off the top of your head. You don't create fair, consistent, high quality tests and homework assignments (read "learning experiences") five minutes before you hand them out. You don't figure out ways to integrate new materials and research into a class in an understandable way on the drive in one morning. You work at this sort of quality all the time. You spend time with your students so you can learn about holes in their understanding. You read and write and create to build an exciting and interesting class every day. The only thing that would drive you to do that is a concern and respect for the adults in your classroom.

When you strive and work to become a good teacher and to create a good class, the four core qualities are essential: knowledge, the skills to convey that knowledge, the ability to make the material you are teaching interesting and relevant, and a deep-seated respect for the student. Without these four qualities, good teaching will not exist.

UNESCO : What makes a Good Teacher? (1996) 2.

One who is child friendly, caring, kind hearted, humble, patient, who has the fear of God, who is always ready to give a listening ear, who is not jealous (because most teachers are always jealous and envious of their students), a motherly love.
I feel there should be a rule and punishment for teachers who maltreat and call children names. Teachers are suppose to be children's best friends instead they are their worst enemies. In fact, some children refuse to go to school because of their teachers. Children are not suppose to learn with fear.
I work with a children NGO and they children complain a lot to me about their teachers.

Ngozi Ekwerike, Nigeria

A real friend is someone who knows all about you and still he loves you. A good teacher is a good friend. A good teacher is someone who teaches us like children with love.
Arif Raza, Pakistan

Good teaching is keeping yourself in the shoes of your students.
A good teacher should live his/her life in such a way that those who are watching him/her will not be led astray.
A good teacher should have a teachable heart.

Fe Espiritu, Philippines

A good teacher does not dictate what is written on the book or the curricullum. A good teacher shows the whole wide world to the students.
Mario Martino Rustan (age 18), Indonesia

Today's child will be a man of tomorrow.
Teachers must be a symbol of kindness and love.
Zahid Shah, Pakistan

I think a good teacher must guide the student throughout his needs, both textual and personal. He should love, serve and honour the child.
Amritanshu, India

A good teacher is like a loving parent... fair, respectful, flexible and able to bounce back after even the gravest challenges.
Enitan Mason, USA

A good teacher means someone who plays a role as children's mate in learning, and she/he should be someone who thinks and acts at the best of her/his children's view and growth.
Linda Ivonne, Indonesia

A good teacher is one who challanges her students to be all that they can be.
from Barbara Murphy, USA

Everyone in the world is a teacher in a sense. We all teach something to someone at one point in our lives. However, some of us succed to be great teachers. I believe this happens when a teacher believes in the power of education. When you teach with the certitude that everyone can learn from you. When the student does not learn the way the teacher teaches, then the good teacher teaches the way the student learns.
Ana Laura Garcia Gutierrez, Special Education Teacher, Mexico

A good teacher must be prepared to be foolish if that will help his pupil attain wisdom.
A good teacher, like the good shepherd, must "lay down his life" (sacrifice all) so that the pupil can be solidly grounded in wisdom and understanding.
A good teacher derives absolute satisfaction from seeing his pupil contribute to making life more meaningful to fellow human beings.
A good teacher is always willing to learn from (and of) his pupil.
A good teacher sits at his pupil's feet tirelessly.
A good teacher disciplines himself before anyone else.
Ruth Agamah, Nigeria

A good teacher is someone who will do everything in their power to make every child feel loved and sucessful in some way because all children learn differently and are their own unique individuals.
Mary Kalix, USA

A good teacher must be patient, with gentle but firm voice, can go down to the level of his pupils and willing to learn from them.
from Regina Z. Ubana, Philippines

To be a good teacher, it is fundamental:
to feel like a child
to think like a child
to act like a child
to reason and react as an understanding adult, remembering that one has once been a child, and it's time to revive that child
from Oscar Pacheco

A good teacher must first have been a good student.
from Deborah Barger, USA

"A good teacher is one who can express his\her point of view clearly, who can understand a child's problem, who is ready to help at any time, who knows what is right and what is wrong. A teacher who is very hardworking and friendly too. Who can light the future of child."
from Aruna Hissaria

The teacher is to the students what the rain is to the field.
Zaira Alexandra Rodriguez Guijarro, 11, (Mexico)

A good teacher should treat all pupils like his own children. He should answer all questions, even if they are stupid.
Fatoumata, 11, Chad

To become a good teacher, you not only teach the children but you also have to learn from them.
Tasha-Leigh, 12, Jamaica

A good teacher answers the needs of the pupils and not only the needs of the chosen programme.
Omar, 12, Morocco

I like a teacher who helps me think and get answers for myself.
Bongani Sicelo, 9, Zimbabwe

Others have emphasised the central role of teachers:

see Delors, J. (1996) Learning: The Treasure Within Paris: UNESCO

Teacher Dale Gordon has written her own manifesto for helping her students learn.

UNESCO : What makes a Good Teacher? (1996) 1.

Response from our Web visitors

A great teacher Interacts with the child (physically, and mentally)
A great teacher gives affection to the pupils, makes them understand what emotion is.
A great teacher smiles to his/her pupils even when they screw him up.
A great teacher teaches not only text book materials but also The truth that's happening outside. Practice balanced with theory.
A great teacher dedicates him/herself to the job. They made a commitment. Then they have to do it.
A great teacher understands that a child is not only a tiny bundle of joy that can cry, smile, laugh. He/she must understand that in front of him stands a true miracle of life.
Yuventius, Jakarta, Indonesia

A good teacher is someone who teaches not only with mind, but also with heart.
Syanne Helly, East Java, Indonesia

A teacher should have 3 essential qualities.....

There is a saying,"GIVE ME A FISH AND I EAT FOR A DAY, TEACH ME TO FISH AND I EAT FOR A LIFE TIME". This must be a philosophy of a good teacher... She/he should be patient and kind, flexibile and resourceful, tolerant and open minded with a good sense of humour. Enthusiastic and enjoys teaching. should be honest, imaginative and creative. Efficient. Self-disciplined. Helpful. Humble and modest........ In my opinion teacher should be like this.


One who help his students in all respects. He makes his students able to live better life. He teaches students to take decisions in all the conditions. Who is good teacher for his students and also good students for his students and society, having moral character and model for building new good society.
Prafull Bhasarkar, Babupeth, Chandrapur, India

I think that a good teacher should be a good and complete person: curious, passionate, interested about their pupils' interests, wishes, feelings... A really good teacher should be child in his soul which mean, creative, imaginative and ready for exploration etc.
Mirjana Kazija, Rijeka, Croatia

I was graduated as a teacher of english in Albania.What really makes a very good teacher is having a lot of intuition and intelligence because having these qualities you will have the power to understand your students'phsycology and behaviour and helping them out would be much easier.A teacher should also be super comprensive to understand what's going on in the students'world.And a teacher should the subject that he/she is teaching.

Migena Mullaj, Reseda, California, USA

A good teacher makes herself available to all students, however, knows which students need extra assistance.
A good teacher is an effective communicator, however, who knows when she needs to change her communicating techniques to be sure students can grasp instructional concepts.
A good teacher allows students to ask questions, however, does not answer questions without drawing from other students' learning experience first.
A good teacher has classroom rules and procedures which help students know what is expected from them and how the students can help themselves.
A good teacher encourages cooperation and sets an example with other students and faculty.
A good teacher is flexible and able to change lessons "spur of the moment" in order to accommodate the needs of her students.
A good teacher respects all students and encourages good performance.

Marie Garcia, Oyster Bay, NY, USA

A great teacher can be defined by two simple words. Best friend. Who better to trust than a best friend? Who better to love and be loved in return than a best friend? Who better to gain knowledge from, than a best friend? Finally, who better to remember throughout the days of your life, than a best friend? Let's all be teachers, shall we?

Marco Melendez, San Angelo, Texas, USA

A teacher must have motherly love with their students (Means he should be a mother in the school).
He must have Moral character and honesty.
He must be well prepared with his subjects.
He must have a good knowledge of his subjects.
Physically and mentally fit for the job.
He should be active and smart in the classroom.
While teaching he should use so many support materials.
The support material should be prepared himself.
The pupils should be joyful in the class.

Laxman Wadgire, Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India

A good teacher of children understands childhood in an engaging way. She understands that childhood culture is more universal than adult culture, and therefore easier to engage with any place any time.

Everybody will have their own opinion on this because it is impossible to please everybody at the same time. It is very difficult to say what a good teacher is when I am still a student and have seen my share of what a teacher should do. I think that the qualities that a teacher should maintain are the abilities to relate to their students on their on level, make learning fun and easy to understand, be nice so students will listen, make the kids look forward to entering the classroom, and above all.... maintain control.

Katie, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, U.S.A.

"When love and skill work together, expect a masterpiece" (Ruskin) It is fundamental that a teacher cares about humanity in general. Once we love, enjoy and appreciate the individuality of each and every child in our classroom - everything else falls into place. A good teacher takes cognisance of the fact that they are role models for children remembering that we teach more by what we do than by what we say! This is a challenge for the best of us!!!!

Judith Butler, county Cork, Ireland

Using his/her heart in teaching,he/she must love children and able to bring satisfaction in learning.
Dwi Rahayu, Jakarta,Indonesia

A good teacher is someone who can learn from his students, who can learn with them, and for them. He also must be honest in his relationships with students, and proud enough about his own value to work, from there, on helping his students to build their own self esteem.

Christian Berger, Santiago, Chile

A good teacher is someone who is a learner herself.
Astrid, Perth, WA, Australia

One who has no bias, no fixed point of view, open eyes to see and explore life and learning itself, is the best teacher for he is a child too!
Ashish, Mumbai, Maharshtra, India

I think a good teacher should always show his students the values behind the items he/she is teaching in an exciting and friendly way.
Aly AlSabbagh, Cairo, Egypt

I have been reading through this column - "What makes a good teacher?" The qualities mentioned are great, no doubt, but if a little bit more is added to the forum, I believe the teacher will be a model teacher.
The teacher should be loving, know the children personally in order to help them with their problems.
Caring and sharing nature will help the teacher to know the children better.
Children love and like the teachers more in whom they can confide.
To win their confidence should be the teacher's first aim - though strictness has to be in its place.
vinod Bala Jain, Meerut, U.P., India

A good teacher represents some of the following qualities:
has to be interested in his own subjects and at the same time open-minded for others and other topics.
has to be strict, self-confident and show authority, but at the same time he has to be the pupils' "helper" and quite often even something like their friend who they can talk to if problems occur.
has therefore to find a balance between him representing an authority or a friend.
likes to work with children.
enjoys teaching.
arrives in time to start a lesson and ends a lesson in time because of good organisation and planning.
uses different methods to liven up his lessons and therefore keep his pupils' attention.
has to gain the pupils' interest in his subject.
conveys information and keeps the pupils' attention.
has to be patient.
A good teacher still remains a human being like you and me so that it is obvious that the qualities listed above are useful to keep in mind to be or become a good teacher, but they are only few of the qualities teachers need to "survive" in their everyday life.

Birte Schneeweiß, Dagmar Schulz, Berit Hencke, Kiel, Germany

A good teacher needs (besides a lot of other important features) to provide feedback and consequences to students. It makes no sense if a teacher tells a pupil to leave the class five times. Advice can only be useful if they are taken seriously. Apart from that a good teacher, of course, has to be humorous, friendly (but not too friendly), and well prepared for the lessons. And it is important for a teacher to find the right way between passion for his subject and the interests of the class.

Thomas Tschirner, Kiel, Germany

In brief, a teacher needs self-confidence and knowledge about her subject(s), but the most important thing is that a teacher has to enjoy what she does! She has to be enthusiastic and she has to have a true interest in her pupils!!!

Hannah Gunther, Kiel, Germany

A good teacher

has to be patient
wants to improve his teaching methods
has mastery of his/her subject
has to be motivated to give his/her pupil the same interest for the subject that he has
has to understand how children act
has to remember how it was when he/she was a child

Franziska Lindenthal, Kiel, Germany

A good teacher should be friendly and consequently should listen to the pupils and he/she should care for every pupil in the class.

Christiane Stroeher, Kiel, Germany

A good teacher is well prepared for every session; knows what and how children/pupils want to learn about his/her subject and is so interested in pupils behaviour...; a teacher needs to be respected by the pupils as the teacher of the subject and so talk in a firm and gentle voice; has to make pupils feel successful and of course tries to really make them a successful student of his subject; he has to express/radiate his interest to his subject in a way that the pupils can feel it and start feeling the same...

Torben Wolgast, Kiel, Germany

A teacher should have various qualities. First of all he/she should love to be a teacher and fond of his/her subjects. He/she should be patient with his/her students and be able to explain the subject matter to them well. His/her class should be a mixture of learning by doing and theoretical learning and should be fun as well. A teacher should be a person you can always speak to and be able to give you some advice in case you need help. He/she also needs to be friendly but also a little strict so students pay respect.

Claudia Thiel, Kiel, Germany

A Teacher must know well about:
psychology of children
education psychology
his duties and obligations
the parental behaviour
the methods and techniques of teaching/learning.
Besides,he must have up-to-date knowledge of the subjects he is teaching.

Sajjad Haider, Islamabad, Pakistan

I want to be a guide for "my children": I want them to look to the world, ask themselves questions, see that they can do something, be surprised and curious to learn, grateful for what they have and have respect for eachother and for others... There are so many things that we can do.

Maaike Corteville, Ingelmunster, Belgium

A good teacher is the one who:

is a master in the subjects taught.
always thinks to improve the teaching techniques.
always tries to produce quality students (quality results).
does 'needs assessments' to help students meet the requirements.

Mohamad Hazawawi Yusof, Perak, Malaysia

One who doesn't 'teach' but instead is willing to 'learn' with the child and from the child. The minute one thinks one 'knows' something that very moment he/she doesn't!
Vivekananda Roy Ghatak, Gujarat, India

A good teacher is the one that takes his/her own initiatives to prepare the students to become valuable assets to his/her own country.
A good teacher is the one who cares and is committed to his/her work for the children.
A good teacher is the one with a big HEART.
A good teacher is the one that provides good coaching for his/her students.
A good teacher is the one that has excellent end results.
Stanley Ret, Colonia, Yap State FM

A good teacher never forgets what it is like to be a learner - vulnerable, anxious and dependent! Remembering this, a good teacher looks at a student and sees "only the soul of a human being". A student is a teacher's equal - both leading each other to grow in knowledge, both learning about 'self' and not playing a power struggle for today, both smiling in satisfaction for a job well done!

Susan Sheldon, USA

the english teacher problem

Mojtaba Ghassemi, Iran
I think that the biggest problem here is the low rates of pay. Being paid less than 3 SUD per hour makes the teachers in general and Language teachers in particular teach for around 80 hours per week in order to only cover the basic expenses. And that leaves no room to be creative in the classes.

Átila Cassiana, Brazil
Like yours, I have the same problems. I teach English in a public school here in Brazil and my students don't like to study. They don't have any wish in their life. I do many things to make the classes interesting but it doesn't work. And here we have the same problems with the low salary. I hope one day the teachers should be more respect.

Carlos Rubio, Ecuador
Overcrowded classrooms is the worst problem a TEFL might face. First of all, knowing if you have reached all the students would be difficult. Then, giving all the students an opportunity to participate would be impossible. Outcomes will be low specially in spoken skills.

Stuti, India
The biggest problem in any class is the bad behaviour of the students. One can definitely deal with the issues like the low pay and resources etc. all these issues do have a workaround, however the issue of the bad behaviour is the one which is most difficult to handle. I agree that there are some students who do not behave badly because they are bad but they do so only to garner the attention of the class however, there are some who behave so only to disrupt the class or simply because they take the class for being granted they would expect the teachers to be understanding towards them. They do not understand the perspective of the teacher and don't hesitate to ditch the teachers in some cases.

Linda, Germany
Sadly the low pay is the biggest problem. I got into teaching English as a Foreign Language for two reasons - I enjoy teaching and it provides the only possibility to work abroad. Unfortunately with the introduction of the Euro the salary I get is really low. Teaching is wonderful but why can't we get paid a reasonable salary? And the thought of what the situation is going to be when I retire is gloomy. What do other teachers do when they retire? How do they survive on the low pensions?

Bekzod, Uzbekistan, Tashkent
I go along with all teachers' opinions, these problems were and will be. I've been teaching English for a year and a half, but as there has been no support and lack of sufficient finance as my employer promised I tend to get demotivated from teaching but only the reason I'm still teaching is students who are eager to get knowledge and come to private educational centers to find what they can't find at public schools and universities these days in our country. The quality of education is so miserable at public school these days that I have to admit that any graduate of Pedagogical university wouldn't work at public schools in any conditions because of too low pay rate, lack of respect towards any teachers and conditions there. But anyway, I think being a teacher is a challenging job and it's not for everybody.

Bekzod, Uzbekistan, Tashkent
I go along with all teachers' opinions, these problems were and will be. I've been teaching English for a year and a half, but as there has been no support and lack of sufficient finance as my employer promised I tend to get demotivated from teaching but only the reason I'm still teaching is students who are eager to get knowledge and come to private educational centers to find what they can't find at public schools and universities these days in our country. The quality of education is so miserable at public school these days that I have to admit that any graduate of Pedagogical university wouldn't work at public schools in any conditions because of too low pay rate, lack of respect towards any teachers and conditions there. But anyway, I think being a teacher is a challenging job and it's not for everybody.

Olga, Argentina
We EFL teachers in Argentina have to face problems such as overcrowded classrooms, demands of syllabuses that are inapplicable to classroom contexts, and sometimes the attitudes of parents and the bad behaviour of students. Nevertheless, the biggest problem is our salary: as we are underpaid, we have to work too many hours, which are distributed among schools located at distant places from one another. The consequences of this situation are two: that we cannot aspire to improve our language or professional level because overwork makes us feel exhausted, and that our teaching tends to be poorly performed.

M. Maza Benouar, Algeria
To me the lack of training and development opportunities makes the teacher's career stagnate and involves an overwhelming sense of dissatisfaction and frustration.

Trinidad West Indies
Trinidad is an English speaking country, so all of our EFL students come from Latin America, the non-English speaking Caribbean and occasionally from Europe. Courses are available at small, private specialist schools, or the University. Numbers are not a problem, and although competition keeps our salaries artificially low, we manage. Our real problem is getting inspection copies of materials, especially course books. It is difficult to keep abreast of current publications, as information on the Internet, although useful, does not give us a true picture of the full course, and books are very expensive for us at the current exchange rate for the pound sterling. For the same reasons it is difficult for small schools to invest in hi-tech equipment. We can get it, but only at a price. Bookshops here will only stock EFL books they know they can sell to existing customers which gives a very limited range. We manage by adapting the books we have, and using authentic materials, but this only addresses part of the problem.

Dr.Krushna Chandra Mishra
To me it appears that demands of the syllabus pose the most difficult of challenges so far classroom teaching of ESL in my situation in India is concerned. I say it is the syllabus that poses a real high magnitude challenge because most of the times a review of the syllabus is made much that is required to be done is generally overlooked and what comes by way of a new replacement falls short of the emerging expectations by the generation of learners for whom globalisation's opportunities mean preparation for an international career with tough competition.

Kanwalpreet Kaur, India
Sometimes spoilt children at home become troublemakers in schools. They need proper counseling and after getting cured they should sent to schools because they tend to spoil other kids also.

Sridevilazaras, India
As I am very much interested in teaching I don't feel difficult about the overcrowded classrooms, attitude of students, parents and management. I can manage them. But I am very enthusiastic in learning and developing my language skills. Though there are some training programs we are not getting permitted to go and develop our subject.

Ursula Huancas, Peru
Well,I can deal with a low rate or a disruptive student, but I really can't stand those parents who believe that we are going to do everything they haven't done for their children. I think that all the ones mentioned above have "an easy" solution but parents attitude is something that escape from our hands.

Albert P'Rayan, India
I teach English at the tertiary level and I have worked in India and abroad. As a teacher I face many problems but the biggest one is the 'attitudes of educational managers'. Most of them are educrats (bureaucrats who consider themselves as educationists)and thrust their views on professional teachers. As bureaucrats they are inflexible and as pseudo-educationists they are blind and take delight in misleading real educationists.

Mohd Syahir, Malaysia
Teachers in Malaysia are very lucky indeed if they compare themselves with other colleagues in other country. Malaysian Ministry of Education are very kind enough to give nearly everything that we need. Sadly, there are huge gaps between parents ideology in rural and urban areas. Parents must work together with teachers not blaming one another if problem persist. Students nowadays, lacks of attention, care and most of all, LOVE. Most of the time, they will try their best to gain teachers' attention either through good deeds or bad behaviour. As a teacher, we deliver knowledge, at the same time we integrate moral values. Teachers; be wise and get control of the anger. I am proud to be a teacher.

Jenny, Colombia
I think the very first problem about being an English teacher in my country has to do with the educational laws currently established. They are too loose with students, allow them to approve subjects with no effort at all so there's not even an extrinsic motivation to study hard.

Samir Ibrahim, Syria
I think that teachers have all these problems mentioned in the vote column. However, the low rates of pay appears to be a strong complaint. The lack of the shortage of training sessions turns to be a critical issue. These two points can be enough to get many teachers to forget about the sanctity of their career. Concerning the bad behaviour of the students and the noisy office hours they spend, most of them tend to think about their being nervous miserable creatures.

Ahmad, Syria
Well, I'm afraid most of the teachers here would always go for what they think is the easier option of having students 'memorise' things and learn them by heart! You'll be amazed at how students can write long compositions while stumble at telling a verb from a noun! And what's worse, those are the teachers that are looked upon as the good and successful ones!!! HELP!

Deborah, France
It's quite hard to choose just 1 problem! From my experience of teaching there are far too many students per class which then leads to behaviour and management problems. I also find it disappointing that there isn't more support and development opportunities to try to overcome the said problems.

Mateusz, Poland
Schools in Poland usually have different rates for Polish teachers and native speakers. These rates are not based on qualifications and experience but simply on where you come from. Talking about discrimination and glass ceilings, we've got it all...

Marni Jamil, Malaysia
In my opinion, time factor is one of the main issue since students need more time and attention from their teachers. In my observation, majority of the students with low proficiency level in English language would have a hard time during English lesson. Some of them might not not even understand simple English words and surprisingly, these students were expected to appreciate Literature without even understanding English in the first place! I could still recall the information that I received in one of the methodology classes that I attended, which stressed that teachers should try in every possible way to make students understand English without translating them into students' native language. One of the examples is by using actions to show a certain movement or by conducting a demonstration. I have tried it in class and it is achievable because students can understand better. However, such approach is time consuming compared to the grammar translation method, hence teachers are struggling really hard to complete the whole syllabus in a given time. Moreover, it also depends on the effectiveness of classroom management because it is obvious that classroom management and teaching cannot be totally separated because both are present in the whole process.

V.Sankaranarayanan, India
My biggest problems are establishing compatibility with students and imbibing in them some seriousness about the importance of learning English.

Romina, Italy
The problems I face up everyday in my classrooms are the bad behaviour of students , who don't respect the teacher as such. Maybe the problem is our society and the loss of the most important values. This is the basis of my difficulties.

Rogerio luques, Brazil
Lack of training and development opportunities are the biggest challenger that teachers have to face nowadays, not only because the rates or lack of training but also because of
lack of time to prepare goods classes. Although the teacher effort if he or she does not have enough time his/her job could not be sufficient and the students learn less than they need about the language that they are learning.

Elisabeth Blanco, Colombia
It is a shame our low rate of pay, sometimes we have to work double time in order to have the money for survive, for doing research you have to have savings in order to spend time on that because there is not support.

Ayþe Gül, Turkey
The biggest problem is, I think, families' life conditions and their own education. I saw a lot of students, If their families are well educated and well behaved they learn and behave well too. Because their families shape their characters firstly. What students see in their families, they behave as their families do. And families with low economic status can not supply their children's needs well, I think it is important. When we give homework our students -because some subjects need a lot of materials they can not do. Therefore some topics remain abstract.

Ranjani Venkat, India
I am thoroughly disturbed and upset by the behaviour of many of my students. While I do not expect them to blindly obey me or treat me with exaggerated respect, I believe I need to be given my due as a teacher. In this regard let me clarify that I am not very stern or severe on any of the children but rudeness and use of bad words does put me off badly. Today's kids are bright and intelligent but are a somewhat arrogant lot. I am at my wits end very often while teaching.

Irina Milanova, Bulgaria
I think all problems that teachers face come from their too low salary. Students behave badly because they don't respect teachers. Why should they if they see how their parents look down on teachers because very often students' pocket money is much more than teachers'? Teachers aren't motivated to develop their knowledge, because in the end the salary is the same. No support from nowhere. We, Bulgarian teachers, have the lowest status in Bulgaria and in Europe as well.

Nad, Algeria
I think that each country has its own specificity therefore educational problems differ from one country to another.

Mehdi, Tunisia
I've learnt much about respecting students' needs and all and how much that can be motivating for them. However, the rising generation is far too busy doing nothing. All they care for is entertain themselves. With new technology, this aim is so easy to reach. My students are motivated to learn English as they know how important it is for their careers, but they are too lazy to work. I don't expect anyone to have a clue for this situation; it's about the rise of a nation.

Zakari, Ghana
The current biggest problem in the public schools in Ghana is overcrowding.This highlights the low rates of pay.

Jessica, Scotland
How sad to see that all over the world teachers are suffering from poor pay and conditions. Here in the UK as well, these are our main concerns. Most teachers in private language schools here are paid hourly, for contact time only, and receive no sick pay, no job security and often don't know from one week to the next how much work they'll be offered. What a pity the British Council doesn't feel able to step in and support teachers in this area.

Guenter, Austria
I could pick several here and there are several things that irritate me. Although on a personal level many parents seem to appreciate what teachers do, on a public level teachers have a low status and public opinion only focuses on negative examples. This is especially pronounced when there's some debate about pay. And I get the impression that officials and politicians are only interested in polishing up their own image. They have very little understanding of the real work of a teacher of this time. Parents are frequently more interested in marks than in education. And it's the same with pupils: few are interested in learning. There's a lot of freedom within the syllabus, so that is not a problem here.

Lydie, France
Parents tend to be overprotective. In order to avoid any potential conflict, they wait until they feel children show some signs of motivation. Easy! it's up to the teacher to take charge, as most parents lack authority.

Bozkur, Turkey
It is interesting to read that most teachers in the world have common problems. From my point of view, we all knew most of the problems we might encounter with before the we started teaching. How many rich teachers do you know? How many students sit still, obey all the rules, or do their homework every day? This is all teaching about. Touching lives. Best wishes.

Tarveen Walia, India
Recently I asked my +2 students how many of them would consider taking up teaching as a profession. It came as no surprise to see not a single hand going up. It seems teaching is not on anyone's scheme of things. Low pay scales, rampant exploitation by school authorities, overcrowded classes & a general lack of respect for elders are just a few of the problems in a country like India. There aren't enough growth opportunities, & you tend to be doing the same clerical jobs year after year. On the brighter side, even a handful of grateful students & the fact that they remember your lessons years after, makes all the hard work worth it, somehow.

Ganesan Venjataraman
In every nation and clime, teachers generally don't get the status and respect in their respective society that they richly deserve. Really a sorry state of affairs that deters most talented & resourceful persons from choosing Teaching as a profession, career and mission. Result: Mankind stands to lose. People need to be educated to see & assess the realities of life and the position teachers occupy in human development & the pride of place they deserve. Then only, teaching will regain its status as a Noble Profession not only in name but in reality & the world will turn into a better place.

Lilly Spillman, Argentina
I'm not quite sure if there's just one of the issues above that makes it 'the' biggest problem we teachers have to face. After so many years of teaching I have come to the conclusion that it's a combination of all the items mentioned. First of all, our salaries are really very low (not only in my country, but also everywhere else)and we have to work long hours to make ends meet; students lack motivation for learning, therefore their bad behaviour which we have to cope with; parents are not very supportive at all; the fees for training or teacher development have become unaffordable; .... well the list is long ....
Although I have become a pessimist concerning any progress in our situation, I still feel happy and enjoy being a teacher!!

Ben, Malta
It's really only a seven month season here, busy from April to October but then nothing besides that. So, financially this time of year is terrible, after the long winter months with no work. Being off in winter is a great thing, but that first month of getting back to work proves to be a really expensive time.

Camelia Santa, Romania
Money may be a problem, especially in my country and especially during the first years of teaching, but another big problem is students' behaviour which is getting worse and worse every year. Probably having fewer students in class would solve a bit of this aspect, but not entirely. But, at least, it would be a start. Only a few students are easier to supervise and easier to deal with. I'm still young and I still hope that all is to be changed.

Monique Ditesheim, Santiago Chile
I agree with Alicia, teaching is a very nice task, but only when students are motivated and unfortunately in Chile it's rather difficult to find a motivated student, because mentalities aren't the same as in Europe. I hope one day things will change for better.

Tatjana, Lithuania
A low status of a teacher results from a low pay in a global society where the main value seems to be money, consequently, a teacher is often seen as a loser as his/her salary is low. However, not a single person can avoid schooling if s/he wants to achieve his/her goal in life. The question is: why isn't an educated person who educates others and makes the world multi-coloured to others respected and treated fairly?

Mary, Argentina
In my country very little is done in the field of teacher development. If you are interested in attending this kind of courses, you have to pay very high fees and, since teachers are not evaluated, there is little demand for improvement projects. In addition, very few school managers understand the benefits of offering their teachers opportunities for improvement schemes. Consequently, teachers do what they can, which is not always the best, and the results of their work is far from being satisfactory. However, nobody seems to care much about this. Those students who really want to acquire a good command of English as a foreign language attend private courses at institutes as if this were not a goal of the state education.

Paul Fernandini, Peru
The negative attitude of students towards English is probably the main cause of disruptive behaviour and bad interpersonal relationships between a teacher and a student as we have to deal with different types of personalities on this "arena" called classroom. I have always thought that it is necessary for teachers to set up rules from the very beginning, being "friendly" (not friends!!!) when the circumstances allow to do so and always being firm without offending or humiliating our students who are the most important part of the learning process and our reason to be in the classroom. We have to be aware that if we build up a barrier between us and the students, learning will not take place at all... resulting in feelings of displeasure for both the teacher and the pupils.

Asif Chowdhury, Bangladesh
As far as I concern, money talks in this world. But in case of education, it is not supposed to be treated in the same way! But, after all we are the human being and we need to care about our fundamental needs and demands. Whenever a teacher is happy with his 'stomach' as well as his 'mind' then obviously we can get the best from him. Like, if the teacher is worried about his hunger and thirst and also if he lacks in concentration by thinking of his family affairs and other dealings then automatically we can never expect a good shot from a teacher in regards his performance. So, my view is pretty straight forward, "Make a teacher happy, in return he will make a group of students happy!"

Nadeem al-Murshedi, Yemen
As an English teacher in Yemen, I face several problems. Recently teachers receive about $180 a month. Of which $100 goes for rent and utilities, $30 goes for transportation and $50 for food, clothes, hospitals and many other things. Of course, this sum doesn't help at all. Many teachers have to look for part time jobs or they may be absent from their schools for several days or months to work for other people. Another problem is many of our schools, the class contains more than 100 students which means there is no real teaching and learning. In fact, this is a baby sitting, not teaching. I am an English teacher and obliged to teach geography and history beside English. Ministry of education doesn't offer training and development opportunities to English teachers. There aren't qualified trainers for them. I have recently found out that the British council gives some training to English teachers while I was digging in the Internet to find some NGOs that train English teachers. I have attended 3 workshops prepared by the British Council in Sana'a. There are no facilities in many schools that help teachers teach well. The total absence of ICT tools in most of our schools is a real problem .

Kayan, Israel
I would like to see change in the teacher's status. I think every problem starts there.

Abdul Ghani, Pakistan
Teachers have got low status in our society. Once there was strike in Berkley University, when it was inquired teachers replied our salaries not equal to the salaries of bus cleaners. If this happens in most advanced countries, can you imagine the situation in developing countries and under developing countries.

Alicia, Chile
It's so difficult to teach here because students don't want to learn, they don't write nothing, I think that I must teach them with love, patience, but they don't respect me what can I do with that? I love my profession, to teach is the best important in my life.

fungsi pengetua


Schools that train people to obey authority and follow rules unquestioningly will have poorly prepared their students for the evolving world they live in.
SENGE (2000)





PLANNING means setting goals and objectives for the school
and developing blue prints and strategies for implementing them.

ORGANIZING means bringing together the necessary human,
financial, and physical resources to accomplish goals efficiently

LEADING has to do with guiding and supervising subordinates.

CONTROLLING refers to the principal’s evaluation responsibilities
and includes reviewing and regulating performance, providing
feedback, and otherwise tending to standards of goal attainment.

Luther Gulick in 1937 proposed POSDCoRB

1. Merangka Matlamat sekolah
2.Menggubal Dasar kk & Pelaksanannya – (di sekolah siapa buat/ajar apa)
3.Menetapkan matlamat Pencapaian kk
4.Menentukan strategi
5.Membina program
6.Menetapkan prosedur
7. Memperuntukkan sumber

1.Mengenalpasti kelayakan& Kepakaran guru subjek
2. Menubuh JKKK & Panitia subjek
3.Mewujudkan senarai Tugas Guru subjek
4. Menjalankan orientasi & Latihan untuk guru-guru

1. Memantau kemajuan pelajar
2. Membimbing guru melaksanakan KK yang ditetapkan
3. Menangani Perubahan
4. Menurunkan kuasa Kepada guru
5. Memotivasi guru


Menetapkan piawaian Pencapaian kurikulum
Mewujudkan Sistem Laporan Maklum balas
Menjalankan pemantauan/ penyeliaan pelaksanaan KK
Menjalankan Penilaian Pengajaran & pembelajaran
Menjalankan tindakan Pembetulan & pemulihan

In a school that learns (learning organisation), people who traditionally may have been suspicious of one another – parents and teachers, educators and local business people, administrators and union members, people inside and outside
the school walls, Students and adults – recognize their common stake in the future of the school system and the things they can learn from one another

• Melibatkan penggubalan, perancangan,
• Melaksanakan perancangan
• Bekerjasama dengan orang lain.
• Menerangkan matlamat sekolah
• Merangka matlamat Kurikulum
• Menyelaras Kurikulum
• Mudah dihubungi (high visibility
• Memantau, Menyelia dan Menilai P & P
• Memantau, Kemajuan Murid

istilah dalam pengurusan sumber manusia

• An organisation is an institution consisting of two or more people, having a structure and an accepted process for fulfilling functions that will enable the achievement of its goals
• An organisation is the planned coordination of the activities of a number of people for the achievement of some common explicitly purpose or goal, through division of labor and function, and through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility
Components of Organisation
• Mission and Objectives
• Input
• Process
• Output
• Outcome
• Feedback
• Boundary/Environment


• The purpose or reason for the organisation’s existence
• It tells what the company is providing to society
• To improve the quality of home life by designing, building, marketing, and servicing the best appliances in the world
• We shall build good ships here – at a profit if we can – at a loss if we must – but always good ships

• End results of planned activity
• They state what to be accomplished by when and should be quantified if possible
• To achieve 10% annual growth in earnings per share
• To achieve 20-25% return on equity
• To achieve 27% return on capital employed

• The inputs of the organisation transformed to obtain the desired output
• Includes functions of planning, organising, communicating, interacting, working, etc. which combine to form organisational strategies
planning, organising, communicating, interacting, working, etc. which combine to form organisational strategies

• Goods and services produced by transforming the inputs in order to meet the objectives of the organisation

• The impact that the output has in fulfilling the objectives of the organisation
has in fulfilling the objectives of the organisation

• The organisation has to obtain feedback to determine how its strategies have fared in achieving its objectives and goals for purpose of remedial or corrective actions, if necessary

• Each organisation has a boundary which differentiates it from others and determines the internal and external environments

The external environment is anything outside the boundary of the organisation – technology, political, social, demography or the economy- all of which influence the performance of the organisation

The success of organisation is also influenced by its ability to manage the internal environment which reflects the organisational culture

Characteristics of Organisational Effectiveness- Goal Achievement
• Clearly defined goals
• Increase in output
• Higher productivity
• Better quality of product and service
Satisfying the Customers
• Good corporate image
• Proven quality of output
• Reduced complaints
Organisational Performance
• Effectiveness
• Efficiency
• Quality
• Productivity
• Profitability/ROI
• Quality of Work Life
• Adaptability/Work culture

• Attainment of organisational objectives (meeting of expected standards)

• Doing the job on time and correctly in relation to goals and objectives
• Efficient utilisation of resources for the job
• Return from investment of time, energy and resources

• Conformance to standards
• Output fit for use
• Meeting customer’s requirement
• Relationship of output to input
Quality of Work Life
• Creating a positive culture; responsiveness to worker’s need, effective communication
• Ability to ensure viability in a changing environment through innovativeness/creativity/managing change/maintaining its competitive edge

Work Culture
• Values held by members of the organisation eg. – creativity and innovation, customer is the boss, employee focus, teamwork, nothing but the best in work performances

• The behavior of an individual when he is directing the activities of a group toward a shared goal
• Interpersonal influence, exercised in a situation, and directed, through the communication process, toward the attainment of a specified goal or goals

• The initiation and maintenance of structure in expectation and interaction
• The process of influencing the activities of an organized group toward goal achievement
• Is a process of giving purpose (meaningful direction) to collective effort, and causing willing effort to be expanded to achieve purpose
• Key to implementation of any change programme. Effective leadership and top management commitment and support critical for quality impr’t

• Proactive – Ability to anticipate change
• Resourceful – Making change happen
• Interpersonally Skillful – Know most powerful resource is human resource
• Mentally Positive – Outperform others because continue to keep spirit up
• Expertise Driven – Subscribe to the concept of team building

21st Century Organization-Structure
• Nonbureaucratic, with fewer rules and employees
• Limited to fewer levels
• Organized with the expectation that management will lead, lower-level employees will manage
• Characterized by policies and procedures that produce the minimal internal interdependence needed to serve customers

• Depend on many performance information systems, providing data on customer’s especially
• Distribute performance data widely
• Offer management training and support systems to many people

• Externally oriented
• Empowering
• Quick to make decisions
• Open and candid
• More risk tolerant

Role of a Leader
• Leading by example
• Setting clear goals
• Communicating down the line
• Delegating/Being fair and consistent
• Recognising individual contribution
• Strengthening team work
• Acting decisively under pressure

Leadership Styles
– Authoritative(Exploitative) – sets goals, tells what is expected/Not too keen to listen
– Authoritative(Benevolent) – Being firm, but does care for staff’s views
– Democratic(Consultative) – Listens to staff before making decision/acting
– Democratic(Participative) – Takes active part in discussing problems and finding solutions

• Cultivate a high standard of personal ethics
• Have high working energy level always
• Have work priorities/have courage
• Be hardworking, committed and dedicated
• Be creative/be goal oriented/help others
• Always maintain enthusiasm in your work
• Be level headed, always keeping your cool

• Attempt to make use of the wrong person for the task/insult people when they don’t do well
• Abandon your “work ship” in crisis
• Critise honest efforts that failed
• Question others’ loyalty
• Threaten people with loss of job
• Play one person against the other
• Have favorites in the team
• Steal someone’s credit
• Shirk responsibility

• Set objectives/Identify priorities
• Develop strategies/Forecast
• Budget/Schedule
• Program
• Set policies
• Set procedures

• Organization structure
• Job(Position descriptions)
• Position qualifications
• Salary structure and sales

• Select people
• Induct people
• Train people
• Develop people

• Communicate
• Co-ordinate
• Delegate
• Motivate
• Reward
• Enforce discipline

• Set up feedback system
• Set up realistic performance standard
• Measure performance
• Evaluate performance
• Rectify poor performance

• The effective and efficient utilisation of human resources to meet organisational objectives
• Involves all those activities necessary to ensure acquisition and maintenance of a productive work force in line with the organisational objectives
• Not only focuses on HR needs and costs but also on the long term issues of organisational continuity and productivity

• To have an adequate number of competent employees with needed skills, abilities, knowhow and experience to further organizational goals

• Organisational Management
• Leadership and Strategic Management
• Human Resource Planning
• Recruitment, Selection and Placement
• Human Resource Development
• Corporate Culture and Organization Devt
• Career Planning and Development

• Performance Appraisal
• Motivation
• Counseling
• Negotiation
• Effective Communication
• Compensation and Benefits
• Safety & Health/Employee & Labor Relations
• Human Resource Research

Personnel Management vs Human Resource Management
• Deals with micro issues/macro issues
• Compartmentalized/Global
• Ad hoc & short term/Planned & long term
• Reactive/Proactive
• Looks at people’s needs from employees’ point of view/organization’s point of view
• Department seen as not important/important

• Reports through another line manager/directly to CEO
• Has no role in decision making/has role in decision making process
• Maintains status quo/Agent of change
• Not aware of culture/Facilitator of positive organizational culture

Roles of Human Resource Manager
• Planner – staffing matters
• Facilitator – training and development
• Coordinator – occupational safety & health
• Auditor – performance and compensation
• Mediator – employee & industrial relations

• Behaviours that are necessary to achieve a desired outcome
• Behaviour, skills, knowledge, understanding and personal qualities for competent work performance
• Ability to perform activities within an occupation or function and to maintain the standards expected

Underlying Characteristics
• Motives – things a person consistently thinks about or wants that cause action
• Traits – Physical characteristics and consistent responses to situations of information
• Self-Concept – A person’s attitudes, values, or self-image
• Knowledge – Information a person has in specific content areas
• Skill – Ability to perform a certain physical or mental task

Core Competencies
• Accountable/Customer Focus
• Discipline/Integrity
• Loyalty/Social
• Sensitivity/Tolerance
• Transparency

Core Managerial Competencies
• Communication/Teamwork/Motivation
• Drive and Resilience/Creativity/Leadership
• Implementation/Decision Making/Technical
• Strategic Orientation
• Commercial Awareness
• Organizational know how/Broad Scanning
• Information Seeking/Relationship Building and Networking/Negotiation/Deal Making,Emotional Stability/Cultural Sensitivity

Professional Competencies
• Group and Interpersonal Effectiveness – conceptual thinking, decision making, influence, leadership, change management, problem solving, strategic planning
• Leadership Effectiveness – coaching, diversity management, facilitation, negotiation, teamwork
• Personal Effectiveness – achievement orientation, adaptation, analytical thinking, ownership, resilience, self management, technology capability, oral and written communication

Functional Competencies
• Job related knowledge and skills associated with an individual’s capability to complete his/her tasks and work



Ringkasan Eksekutif

Standard Kopetensi Kepengetuaan Sekolah Malaysia telah menggariskan 9
peranan dan tanggungjawab memimpin sesebuah sekolah kepada pengetua untuk
dilaksanakan bagi memacu kecemerlangan sekolah. Di samping itu, terdapat
beberapa ciri kepimpinan yang memerlukan penghayatan oleh setiap pengetua
dalam usaha untuk menggembleng setiap warga sekolah dan sumber yang ada
untuk memacu mereka ke arah kecemerlangan sekolah. Melalui adunan peranan
dan kepimpinan inilah pengetua dapat merealisasikan segala visi dan misi ke arah
kecemerlangan dalam setiap bidang, di dalam persekitaran kerja yang harmoni, dan
merangsang setiap warga meningkatkan kualiti dan kuantiti kerja dan hasil. Dalam
penulisan ini, penulis membincangkan lima daripada 9 peranan dan tanggungjawab
atau kemahiran yang harus dilaksanakan oleh pengetua untuk memastikan
kecemerlangan sekolah. Melalui analisis secara kritikal dan analitikal, penulis
berpendapat bahawa semua tugas dan pernanan tersebut haruslah dilaksanakan
dengan serentak dan secara cemerlang oleh semua pengetua tidak kira di tahap
mana sekali sekolah mereka kerana ia akan memberikan kesan yang hebat dalam
kejayaan sesebuah sekolah. Penulis merumuskan perbincangan dengan
menegaskan bahawa peranan pengetua amat penting dan menjadi penentu utama
terhadap terhadap kecemerlangan sekolah. Beliau juga mengungkapkan bagaimana
pengetua menggunakan kemahiran dan pengetahuan berkaitan dengan peranan
dan kepimpinan ini untuk melaksanakan beberapa tindakan dalam mengubah
persepsi dan pemikiran setiap warga sekolah ke arah kecemerlangan.


Wawasan 2020 yang digariskan oleh Dr. Mahathir Mohamed pada 28 Febuari
1991 adalah berhasrat untuk menjadikan Malaysia sebagai sebuah Negara maju
mengikut acuannya sendiri. Antara hasrat yang terkandung di dalamnya ialah,
Malaysia berhasrat menjadi sebuah negara yang masyarakatnya bersatu padu ,
mempunyai keyakinan diri yang tinggi, berpegang teguh kepada nilai agama,moral,
etika dan menikmati kehidupan yang demokratik, liberal dan bertolak ansur. Lanjutan
itu, di bawah kepimpinan bekas Perdana Menteri Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi telah
memperkenalkan MISI NASIONAL yang mengaitkan dengan Islam Hadhari yang
menekankan penguasaan ilmu pengetahuan dan pembangunan potensi individu
bagi menyediakan sumber tenaga manusia yang seimbang iaitu modal Insan. Misi
Nasional ini memberikan penekanan tinggi terhadap pembangunan modal insan
‘minda kelas pertama’. Dasar 1 Malaysia hasil ilham Perdana Menteri Dato Seri
Najib Tun Razak mengukuhkan lagi betapa perlunya keupayaan modal insan ini
digembleng demi kecemerlangan negara.
Dalam usaha merealisasikan impian tersebut, Kementerian Pelajaran
Malaysia telah diberikan peranan yang utama untuk melahirkan tenaga kerja yang
berkualiti yang berketerampilan, yang mampu menangani cabaran dan bersaing
dalam era globalisasi pada masa kini dan pada masa akan datang. Melalui misi
utama kementerian iaitu membentuk modal insan kelas pertama melalui
pembangunan sistem pendidikan berkualiti dan bertaraf dunia. Segala usaha ini
sudah pastilah bermula di peringkat sekolah. Dalam hal ini sudah tentulah peranan
pengetua yang akan menggerakkan segala tenaga setiap guru, staf, dalam mendidik
anak-anak ini dengan menggunakan segala sumber, tenaga dan kepakaran yang


Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia melalui PIPP ( Pelan Induk Pembangunan
Pendidikan 2006-2010) yang menggariskan 6 teras utama ke arah pencapaian
pendidikan bertaraf dunia tersebut. Melaluinya diharapkan Kementerian Pelajaran
Malaysia akan mengorak langkah membuat anjakan paradigma kepada budaya
berasaskan ilmu dan pemikiran di sekolah-sekolah. Sehubungan itu, sistem
pendidikan diharapkan akan dapat mengeluarkan lepasan sekolah yang kreatif dan
berdaya fikir, mampu menjana idea dan rekaan baru untuk membangunkan industri
berasaskan produk serta perkhidmatan bernilai tambah.

Kejayaan hasrat yang digariskan di dalam PIPP ini adalah menjadi
tanggungjawab setiap warga pendidik terutamanya yang berada di sekolah-sekolah.
Para guru, kakitangan, murid-murid memikul tanggungjawab melaksanakan tugas
masing-masing ke arah ini. Dalam hal ini, pengetua amat bertanggungjawab
menggerakkan sekolah untuk mencapai hasrat yang dirancang. Cabaran terbesar
pengetua di sekolah adalah untuk memastikan organisasi sekolah dapat berjalan
dengan efisien, efektif dan cemerlang. Lanjutan daripada itu, Kementerian Pelajaran
Malaysia dengan kerjasama Institut Aminuddin Baki (IAB), telah menggariskan 9
tugas dan peranan yang perlu dikuasai oleh setiap pengetua untuk melengkapkan
diri dengan pengetahuan dan kemahiran menangani dunia pendidikan bagi
melahirkan pendidikan berkualiti dan sekolah berkesan/ sekolah cemerlang (IAB,
2006). 9 Standard Kompetensi tersebut adalah:,Pengurusan dan Kepimpinan
Organisasi, Pengurusan Kurikulum, Pengurusan Ko-Kurikulum, Pengurusan Hal
Ehwal Murid,Pengurusan Kewangan, Pengurusan Pentadbiran Pejabat, Pengurusan

Persekitaran dan Kemudahan Fizikal, Pengurusan dan Pembangunan Sumber
Manusia dan Pengurusan Perhubungan Luar. Ternyata peri pentingnya kepimpinan
pengetua dalam menjana kecemerlangan sesebuah sekolah. Pengetua sebagai
peneraju utama sekolah menjadi penentu kepada kejayaan setiap perancangan dan
menggerakkan setiap warga sekolah ke arah pencapaian visi yang seterusnya
mewujudkan sebuah sekolah yang cemerlang.

Bagi membincangkan permasalahan yang dinyatakan, beberapa definisi dan
konsep berkaitan perlulah diperjelaskan seperti berikut:

Abas Awang dan Abdullah Ngah, (2007) mentakrifkan kepimpinan sebagai
setiap tindakan yang menumpukan sumber-sumber ke arah matlamat yang benarbenar
bermanfaat. Pemimpin pula adalah orang yang diamanahkan melaksanakan
tugas kepimpinan di atas. Dalam konteks ini , penulis membincangkan 2 jenis
kepimpinan sahaja.
2.1.1 Kepimpinan Instruksional

Sweeny (1982) , menyebutkan enam ciri kepimpinan pengetua / guru
besar yang berkaitan dengan kepimpinan pengajaran di sekolah cemerlang;
penekanan terhadap pencapaian pelajar dalam pelajaran, menyusun dan
menetapkan strategi pengajaran; menyediakan dan mengekalkan suasana
kondusif di sekolah (iklim sekolah); kerap menilai pencapaian akademik
pelajar; menyelaras program pengajaran; membantu dan memberi semangat
kepada guru-guru. Menurut Hussien Mahmood( 1993), mengatakan bahawa
kepimpinan pengetua/ guru besar bertanggungjawab mengadakan falsafah,
matlamat dan objektif sekolah, membimbing para guru meningkatkan
kecekapan mereka dalam pengajaran dan lain-lain bidang kurikulum.
Pengetua juga melaksanakan program perkembangan staf, menyelaras
aktiviti pendidikan serta lain-lain usaha. Jelaslah, kepimpinan pengetua dalam
melaksanakan dan menumpukan seluruh tenaga dalam memastikan tugas
hakiki dan utama dalam kecemerlangan kurikulum, amatlah penting.

2.1.2 Kepimpinan Tranformasional

Zaidatol Akmaliah (2003) mendefinasikan kepimpinan ini sebagai
pemimpin yang mampu mempengaruhi perubahan besar dalam organisasi
serta membentuk komitmen ahlinya untuk mencapai visi, misi, matlamat dan
strategi organisasi. Beliau seterusnya melanjutkan bahawa pengetua bukan
lagi diperlukan untuk mengawal organisasi tetapi berperanan memimpin staf
untuk menyumbang di peringkat yang lebih tinggi. Hal ini disokong oleh
Rahimah Ahmad (2002) yang menyarankan agar pengetua mengamalkan
pengupayaan kepimpinan dalam kalangan guru-gurunya. Oleh itu, benarlah
seperti apa yang dimaksudkan oleh Bass (1978) yang menyatakan bahawa
kepimpinan transformasi ini merupakan ciri kepimpinan yang mengandungi
sifat-sifat keupayaan membangkitkan inspirasi, kebolehan merangsang
intelektual dan bersifat bertimbang rasa secara individu. Hal ini penting
kerana pengetua pada hari ini bukan sahaja bertanggungjawab menjalankan
tugas fungsionalnya sahaja malahan ia perlu menangani segala
permasalahan yang berkaitan dengaan kepimpinannya di sekolah secara
profesional (Hussien Ahmad, 2002).

Oleh itu, jelaslah bahawa pengetua sebagai pemimpin organisasi yang
mengamalkan kepimpinan tranformasional perlulah mampu menjelaskan
kepada staf bawahannya mengenai halatuju sekolah, berkongsi idea serta
menerima pandangan orang bawahannya, mampu membawa perubahan dan
inovasi, menunjukkan semangat dan inspirasi tinggi, sanggup berkorban demi
kemajuan organaisasi dan perihatin terhadap keperluan orang bawahannya.

2.1.3 Rumusan

Ternyata untuk seorang pengetua berjaya berperanan dalam
menjadikan sekolahnya sebagai sekolah yang cemerlang, kedua-dua jenis
kepimpinan ini mestilah mampu di adun dengan seimbang. Menurut Md. Fiah
(2005), ini penting bagi memastikan kecemerlangan sekolah dapat diraih,
dikekal dan seterusnya dipertingkatkan. Oleh itu, sebagai seorang pengetua,
saya haruslah bukan sahaja berusaha memastikan kejayaan cemerlang
dalam pencapaian akademik, serta ko-kurikulumnya, malahan harus dapat
diterima oleh semua staf dalam usaha memacu pentadbiran sekolah
keseluruhannya ke arah kecemerlangan tanpa mengorbankan aspek penting

Hal ini selari dengan seruan agama Islam yang menyeru kita
mencontohi kepimpinan Nabi Muhammad s.a.w yang berjaya mendidik
manusia dalam memastikan bukan hanya kita cemerlangan dalam hubungan
dengan Allah, yang menjadi keutamaan, tetapi juga kita harus berjaya dalam
menguruskan hubungan dang manusia dan alam demi kesejahteraan hidup di
dunia dan di akhirat. Kepimpinan Nabi Muhammad s.a.w telah terbukti
sebagai pemimpin terbaik yang diakui oleh dunia Islam dan Barat. Jika sifat
kepimpinan begini dapat diterapkan di sekolah sudah pastilah setiap ahli
dalam organisasi berkenaan bukan sahaja berjaya memacu kecemerlangan
akademiknya, malahan akan teruja dan komited untuk memajukan sekolah
sesuailah dengan hasrat Kementerian menjadikan ‘sekolahku rumahku’.


Dalam kajian mengenai kepimpinan (Stogdill, 1974, Edmond, 1979, Nor
Azian, 1994), pengaruh kepimpinan adalah amat penting dalam menentukan
kejayaan sesebuah organisasi. Pengaruh dan kecekapan pemimpin dapat
membawa ke arah kecemerlangan sesebuah organisasi. Oleh itu, organisasi seperti
sekolah, pengaruh kepimpinan dan kecekapan pengetua sekolah amat penting
dalam menentukan kejayaan sekolah di bawah pimpinannya. Pengetua sekolah
adalah merupakan kakitangan yang terpenting di peringkat sekolah kerana
peranannya sebagai pemimpin, pentadbir dan pengurus sekolah.

Menurut Hussein (1993) berdasarkan kajian sekolah berkesan peranan
pengetua sering dibicarakan sebagai faktor yang menyebabkan kejayaan sesebuah
sekolah. Oleh itu, pengetua perlu memainkan peranannya dengan berkesan supaya
sekolah akan terus cemerlang. Pengetua sekolah di Malaysia bertanggungjawab
dalam hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan sekolah termasuklah (Hussien, 1993, p 21):
berusaha bagi mencapai dasar pendidikan di peringkat sekolah; mengurus dan
mentadbir sekolah, kurikulum, kokurikulum, kebajikan pelajar, guru dan staf
sokongan sekolah; menyediakan khidmat bantu yang secukupnya bagi
meningkatkan pengajaran dan pembelajaran dan mewujudkan dan memajukan iklim
dan budaya sekolah. Justeru, pengetua perlu berperanan memastikan segala
tenaga dan usaha guru-guru digembleng dengan menggunakan sumber yang ada
ke arah pencapaian program pendidikan yang berkesan.


Peter Mortimore (1995), dalam Seminar Sekolah Berkesan di Malaysia
menyatakan terdapat sebelas ciri utama iaitu, kepimpinan professional, perkongsian
visi dan misi, persekitaran pembelajaran yang unggul, tumpuan kepada P & P,
pengajaran berhala tuju jelas, harapan tinggi pelajar, pengukuhan yang positif,
pemantauan, hak dan tanggungkjawab pelajar, permuafakaatan sekolah dan
organisasi pembelajaran.

Hal ini dijelaskan lagi oleh Hussein Mahmood (1993) yang menyatakan,
sekolah cemerlang bukanlah sekolah yang established atau sekolah primer tetapi
sekolah yang dapat menghasilkan pencapaian akademik yang tinggi, kurang
menghadapi masalah disiplin dan mendapat kepercayaan di kalangan masyarakat
dan guru-guru merasa puas hati bekerja. Abdul Shukor Abdullah (1991) pula
melanjutkan dengan menyatakan bahawa sekolah cemerlang adalah sekolah yang
mencapai tahap terbaik, bermutu dan terunggul dalam semua bidang berkaitan
dengan akademik, sahsiah, pengurusan, perhubungan, infrastruktur dan

Secara keseluruhannya, sekolah cemerlang bermaksud sekolah yang dapat
mencatat kejayaan yang menonjol dalam segenap bidang tanpa menafikan kejayaan
dalam “nieche area” atau watak sesebuah sekolah. Namun hakikat yang kita perlu
terima ialah sekolah-sekolah begini juga sebenarnya mempunyai pencapaian yang
baik dalam banyak bidang lain. Ini kerana ia seringkali saling melengkapi seperti
kejayaan akademik kerap kali juga ditunjangi oleh tahap disiplin dan sahsiah yang


Peranan pengetua dalam menjamin kecemerlangan sesebuah sekolah,
sebenarnya telah dititipkan oleh Kementerian melalui Standard Kompetensi
Pengetuan Sekolah Malaysia yang menggariskan sembilan kemahiran yang menjadi
‘KPI’ kepada kejayaan seseorang pengetua mampu memimpin sekolah menjadi
sekolah cemerlang. Walau bagaimana pun, bagi tujuan perbincangan ini, penulis
akan hanya membincangkan lima peranan seperti berikut;

3.1 Pengurusan dan Kepimpinan Organisasi
Kecemerlangan dalam pengurusan dan kepimpinan organisasi bermaksud
kejayaan pengetua menggerakkan sumber bagi mencapai objektif organisasi dan
membentuk halatuju organisasi, mengamalkan konsep pembelajaran sepanjang
hayat dan membawa perubahan serta kualiti peribadi dan professional.

Pengetua haruslah mampu menterjemahkan dasar kerajaan, menerapkan
pengurusan organisasi berkesan, menjana visi dan misi sekolah, menggunakan
maklumat dan pendekatan terkini, memupuk budaya pembelajaran sepanjang hayat,
melaksanakan perubahan dan menjalankan penilaian dan penambahbaikan.
Di sekolah, penulis seringkali menegaskan setiap staf untuk mengamalkan
nilai-nilai murni di dalam perkhidmatan seperti berazam meningkatkan mutu
perkhidmatan, bekerja dengan penuh tanggungjawab, berusaha mengikis sikap
mementingkan diri, berkhidmat dengan penuh muhibbah dan kemesraan dan
berpegang teguh kepada ajaran agama. Penulis membawa pendekatan keislaman di
dalam pentadbiran. Penulis seringkali mengingatkan semua warga sekolah agar
melaksanakan tugas sebagai satu tanggungjawab dan ibadah serta amanah yang
akan dituntut oleh Allah. Mereka juga diingatkan supaya bersyukur dengan nikmat
yang diberi dan mestilah menunjukkan kesyukuran itu dengan bekerja bersungguhsunguh, penuh ikhlas dan sentiasa mengharapkan keredhaan Allah. Mereka juga diingatkan akan tujuan kita bekerja adalah untuk mencari rezeki yang halal untuk kita berikan kepada anak isteri. Pentadbiran secara telus dan tegas sentiasa diterapkan
di dalam pentadbiran sekolah. Guru-guru dan staf diberikan “empowerment” untuk
melaksanakan tugas agar mereka berupaya membuat keputusan dan berani
terutamanya di dalam usaha meningkatkan pencapaian akademik dan ko-kurikulum
serta sahsiah pelajar. Melalui dasar mesra dan terbuka, setiap orang digalakkan
memberikan pandangan dan idea untuk memajukan sekolah.

Pada peringkat awalnya memang ada pihak-pihak yang berasa tidak selesa.
Ada sebahagiannya sudah selesa dengan budaya ‘ikut saja arahan’ yang diamalkan
sebelumnya. Mesyuarat hanyalah sekadar menerima arahan dan tiada ruang
perbincangan. Penulis seringkali menasihatkan pentadbir–pentadbir lain di sekolah
supaya mengamalkan dasar terbuka, mesra dan telus dalam bekerja. Kesannya
ialah hubungan sesama guru semakin rapat dan setiap orang telah menunjukkan
komitmen yang tinggi. Tidak berlaku lagi masalah ponteng kerja atau balik awal
terutamanya di kalangan pekerja bawahan. Mereka juga sudah mematuhi waktu
bekerja yang ditetapkan dan sentiasa berlumba-lumba untuk meningkatkan prestasi.
Penulis tidak perlu lagi memberikan arahan yang yang banyak kerana semua telah
faham akan tugas yang sepatutnya mereka laksanakan.

3.2 Kecemerlangan Kurikulum

Kecemerlangan kurikulum ini membawa maksud kepada peranan pengetua
dalam menggerakkan segala sumber untuk menyokong perlaksanan pengajaran dan
pembelajaran yang berkesan bagi memastikan kejayaan muridnya. Kesan kejayaan
seringkali dikaitkan dengan peningkatan pencapaian di dalam peperiksaan awam
dan juga kemampuan pelajar menguasai semua kemahiran yang sepatutnya
dikuasai pelajar di dalam tempoh pembelajaran mereka.
Oleh yang demikian, peranan pengetua dalam menjadikan sekolahnya
sebagai sekolah yang cemerlang hendaklah memberi penekanan terhadap
pencapaian pelajar dalam bidang akademik, menyusun dan menetapkan strategi
pengajaran, menyedia dan mengekalkan suasana kondusif di sekolah (iklim
sekolah), kerap menilai pencapaian akademik pelajar, menyelaras program
pengajaran; dan membantu dan memberi semangat kepada para guru. Sebagai
contohnya di sekolah penulis menghadapi masalah berkaitan tahap keinginan
belajar yang rendah di kalangan pelajar.

Ramai pelajar yang kurang berminat untuk belajar dan tiada semangat berlumba-lumba untuk mengejar kejayaan. Akibatnya tahap pencapaian akademik berada pada tahap sederhana. Kejadian ponteng menjadi suatu yang lumrah sehingga kadangkala menjadikan sebahagian guru kecewa. Penulis telah mengemukakan suatu program iaitu, Program Menjana Kecemerlangan Akademik telah dilaksanakan untuk mempertingkatkan pencapaian pelajar dalam PMR dan SPM. Sasaran untuk mengatasi pencapaian tahun sebelumnya di sandarkan kepada beberapa kumpulan pelajar yang akan dipantau pencapaiannya oleh mentor yang terdiri daripada para guru. Mereka akan
menyemak latihan pelajar kumpulan elit melalui program bekalan buku latihan pada
setiap minggu. Setiap minggu pengetua bersama dengan guru-guru akan bersamasama
membaca yasin, bersolat hajat dan solat dhuha pada setiap pagi jumaat.

Setiap kali itu juga penulis akan memberi motivasi mingguan untuk merangsang
para pelajar supaya sentiasa berjuang untuk mencapai kecemerlangan. Untuk
merangsang kecemerlangan pelajar ini, program “Skor A-Jasamu DiKenang” juga
telah dilaksanakan. Melalui program ini, setiap pelajar yang mencapai gred A dalam
setiap ujian bulanan dan mengekalkan pencapaian mereka dalam peperiksaan
peretengahan tahun dan akhir tahun serta percubaan, akan diberikan ganjaran
baucer bernilai RM5.00 dan RM10.00. Pelajar juga ditawarkan ganjaran RM15 bagi
setiap A dalam PMR dan RM20.00 bagi setiap A dalam SPM. Ganjaran juga
diberikan kepada setiap panitia yang pelajarnya berjaya memperolehi banyak A.
Hasilnya, para pelajar dan para guru telah berlumba-lumba untuk mencapai
kecemerlangan. Pada peperiksaan akhir tahun 2008 sahaja seramai 200 orang
pelajar berjaya mengekalkan pencapaian gred A . Berkat usaha para guru dan
semua pelajar ini juga, pencapaian PMR dan SPM 2008, juga telah mencatat
peningkatan pencapaian iaitu daripada GPS 3.38 kepada 3.19 (PMR) dan 6.68
kepada 6.54 (SPM). Melalui PMR juga, sebanyak 8 daripada 10 mata pelajaran telah
mencatat peningkatan mendadak dan ada yang mencatat rekod terbaik selama 6
tahun kebelakang. Kesannya, pencapaian akademik telah meningkat pada setiap
kali peperiksaan dilaksanakan. Penulis berpendapat, tindakan yang dirancang oleh
penulis untuk meningkatkan pencapaian kurikulum di sekolah ini benar-benar telah
berhasil sehingga menjadikan sekolah ini cemerlang.

3.3 Kecemerlangan Kokurikulum

Kecemerlangan ko-kurikulum adalah bermaksud, pengetua mampu
meningkatkan penglibatan para pelajar di dalam setiap bidang ko-kurikulum di
samping dapat mencipta kejayaan dalam permainan, kelab dan bidang beruniform
yang disertai. Dari segi penglibatan, sasarannya adalah setiap pelajar terlibat di
dalam setiap aktiviti ko-kurikulum di sekolah. Di samping itu, sekolah juga haruslah
mampu membentuk watak sekolah melalui program ko-kurikulum ini. Bidang kokurikulum ini mempunyai peranan yang penting di dalam pembentuk modal insan
yang berguna. Melaluinya pelajar didedahkan kepada kepimpinan, akhlak dan
kepatuhan kepada disiplin, semangat kekitaan, kesediaan bertolak ansur dan saling
tolong-menolong dan berdikari. Kecemerlangan insan yang dilahirkan melalui aktiviti
ini, sudah pastilah akan melahirkan modal insan yang tahan menempuh cabaran
dan seterusnya sihat mindanya.

Di sekolah penulis, sukan olahraga telah dipilih untuk menjadi watak bagi
sekolah ini. Ketika penulis sampai di sekolah ini pada 2008 lalu, kemudahan dan
pencapaian olahraga sekolah adalah sederhana. Terdapat banyak kekurangan
kemudahan peralatan dan motivasi kepada para atlit. Ramai ibu bapa yang kurang
menyokong penyertaan anak mereka dalam bidang ini kerana beranggapan anak
mereka akan gagal di dalam peperiksaan dan tidak mempunyai masa depan di
dalam olahraga. Bagi mengatasi masalah ini, penulis telah berbincang dengan
jawatankuasa olahraga sekolah dan telah mengambil beberapa langkah untuk
meningkatkan pencapaian. Penulis mengambil langkah untuk melengkapkan
keperluan atlit seperti, pakaian, spike, memperbaiki padang dan membekalkan
vitamin untuk meningkatkan kecergasan mereka. Untuk merangsang kecemerlangan
mereka, satu skim yang dikenali sebagai “skim insentif olahraga ‘ telah dilancarkan.
Melalui skim ini setiap pingat yang digondol akan ditawarkan hadiah baucer RM10,
RM20 dan seterusnya mengikut pencapaian pada tahap tertinggi. Manakala setiap
rekod yang dibuat, akan dibayar tunai RM20.00. Bagi menjaga kemajuan akademik,
“skim insentif olahraga plus akademik’ telah dilancarkan. Melalui skim ini, atlit yang
berjaya mencatat gred A dalam setiap ujian dan peperiksaan akan diberikan baucer
bernilai RM5 dan RM10. Baucer ini boleh ditukarkan untuk menjelaskan yuran PIBG.
Bagi menjamin masa depan mereka, juga telah membuat hubungan dengan
Bahagian Pengambilan Angkatan Tentera Darat, TUDM dan Kementerian
Kesiahatan, untuk menyerapkan atlit sekolah ini sebagai anggota mereka setelah
tamat SPM.
Impaknya program dan aktiviti yang diaturkan, ialah penyertaan pelajar dalam
olahraga semakin meningkat iaitu daripada 30 orang kepada 90 orang. Di dalam
kejohanan olahraga Daerah Tampin 2009, atlit sekolah ini berjaya mengatasi
pencapaian 2008 dengan 39 emas berbanding 27 emas. Di dalam Kejohanan
Olahraga MSSNS 2009 pula atlit sekolah ini memberikan pingat emas sebanyak 14
daripada 24 pingat untuk Daerah Tampin. Seramai 11 atlit sekolah ini juga telah
terpilih mewakili Negeri Sembilan ke MSSM, dan merupakan kumpulan atlit teramai.
Ibu bapa kini sudah memberikan sokongan kuat kepada olehraga sekolah keraana
tanggapan negatif, bahawa olahraga tidak mendatang faedah dan tidak menjamin
masa depan mereka ternyata tidak benar malah mampu pula mengurangkan
bebanan kewangan untuk menjelaskan yuran PIBG. Guru-guru juga semakin
bersemangat kerana berpuashati dengan pencapaian dan komitmen pelajar.
Ternyatalah tindakan penulis ini telah berjaya meningkatkan tahap pencapaian
olahraga di sekolah ini ke tahap yang lebih baik.

3.4 Kecemerlangan Pengurusan Hal Ehwal Murid

Kecemerlangan pengurusan hal ehwal murid bermaksud pengetua berperanan memastikan pengurusan berasaskan prinsip dan peraturan, melaksanakan strategi peningkatan prestasi hal ehwal murid, aktiviti 3K, menangani konflik hubungan guru–murid, menangani masalah disiplin dan meningkatkan sahsiah murid. Para guru diminta untuk memastikan kebajikan pelajar di jaga, hakhak setiap pelajar dipelihara dan sahsiah mereka dibangunkan untuk menjadi insane yang sempurna. Pengetua dan guru juga harus menjadi model serta ikutan pelajar dengan menunjukkan keperibadian yang mulia. Pelajar perlu didedahkan dengan akhlak mulia dan hidup berpandukan kepada agama. Konsep ‘Sekolahku Rumahku’ harus menjadi panduan guru-guru. Kasih sayang dan layanan sebagai anak yang memerlukan kasih sayang dan bimbingan harus sentiasa ada di jiwa setiap guru bagi menjamin keselesaan pelajar di sekolah. Pelajar yang dididik akhlak dengan akhlak mulia sudah pasti akan menjadi insan berguna di dalam masyarakat. Di sekolah penulis, usaha pembentukan sahsiah pelajar ke arah sahsiah
islam telah dilaksanakan melalui Program Jati diri Islam. Melalui program ini budaya
islam diamalkan seperti memperdengarkan bacaan Al-Quran, zikir pada waktu rehat
dan balik. Pelajar dan guru digalakkan bersolat jemaah pada waktu zohor sebelum
balik. Pelajar juga dilatih untuk menjadi imam dan memberi tazkirah kepada pelajarpelajar lain setiap kali selepas solat . Setiap pagi jumaat akan di adakan bacaan
surah Yasin dan solat hajat serta solat dhuha di samping tazkirah oleh penulis

Pada awalnya memang ada kebimbangan di kalangan guru takut pelajar akan
menggunakan kesempatan untuk ponteng kelas, pura-pura solat kerana ramai yang
tidak tahu solat dan membaca Al-Quran. Penulis meyakinkan guru-guru, bahawa kita
perlu berusaha dan berdoa. Hidayah untuk berubah datangnya dari Allah dan pelajar
harus diberikan peluang. Akhirnya, pandangan penulis dipersetujui oleh guru-guru
dan mereka bekerjasama menggalakkan pelajar untuk mengikuti program ini. Kini,
solat di surau diimamkan sendiri oleh pelajar dan mereka juga telah mampu
memberi tazkirah sendiri. Kesannya amat mengkagumkan penulis sendiri. Pelajar
kini telah menubuhkan sendiri Badan Dakwah dan Kerohanian (BADAR) dan
menjalankan program seperti solat jemaah di setiap waktu (kecuali subuh) setiap
hari dan melakukan qiammulail pada setiap hujung minggu dan solat hajat dan
bacaan yasin pada setiap malam jumaat di surau. Pelajar juga telah mengadakan
program konvoi ke masjid di sekitar Felda Jelai ini pada setiap 2 minggu sekali untuk
bersolat maghrib, solat isyak, baca yasin dan solat hajat. Melalui program “Salam”,
pelajar dan guru digalakkan bersalaman setiap kali bertemu di samping ucapan

Kesan yang dapat diperhatikan daripada perubahan ini ialah, masalah disiplin
telah jauh berubah berbanding sebelumnya. Kini sudah ramai pelajar sudah pandai
bersolat dengan sendiri dan suasana pembelajaran di dalam kelas juga sudah
menjadi lebih baik. Pelajar telah mula fokus kepada pelajaran. Guru-guru juga telah
menunjukkan komitmen yang tinggi untuk bersama-sama penulis dalam membentuk
sahsiah pelajar ini. Guru–guru telah menyatakan kesudian untuk membantu
mengajar pelajar mengaji atau bersolat. Hubungan antara guru dan pelajar juga
sudah semakin akrab dan tiada lagi masalah pelajar biadap kepada guru. Penulis
kerapkali menerangkan kepada guru-guru dan pelajar akan peri pentingnya disiplin
di dalam mencapai kejayaan dalam setiap bidang. Guru-guru disedarkan akan
tanggungjawab membentuk pelajar bukan hanya di bidang akademik, namun displin
dan sahsiah juga menjadi tanggujawab semua. Saranan ini diterima baik oleh setiap
guru tanpa halangan. Ibu bapa juga memberi sokongan dan berasa puas hati
dengan perubahan kepada diri anak-anak mereka yang kini semakin menuju ke arah

3.5 Pengurusan Perhubungan Luar

Kecemerlangan dalam perhubungan luar bermaksud kemampuan pengetua
menggunakan pengaruhnya menarik penyertaan agensi luar seperti PIBG, agensi
luar, masyarakat untuk turut sama memberi sumbangan ke arah kecemerlangan
sekolah. Ini kerana kejayaan sesebuah sekolah tidak akan menjadi kenyataan tanpa
penyertaan komuniti. Tambahan lagi komuniti dan agensi luar ini mempunyai sumber
dan kepakaran yang banyak yang boleh dimanfaatkan oleh sekolah.
Di sekolah penulis, penulis memperkenalkan dasar terbuka iaitu
‘memasyarakatkan sekolah dan menyekolahkan masyarakat’ . Dasar ini bermaksud
memberikan ruang bagi masyarakat membantu sekolah dengan tujuan untuk
memberikan kefahaman kepada masyarakat mengenai aktiviti dan tanggungjawab
warga sekolah dalam mendidik anak-anak mereka. Ketika mula bertugas di sini,
didapati banyak aktiviti dilakukan secara dalaman, kerana takut kurangnya
sambutan masyarakat luar. Namun penulis sering menegaskan bahawa
kecemerlangan sekolah adalah juga tanggungjawab masyarakat dan mereka harus
berperanan membantu sekolah. Lanjutan itu, banyak program-program melibatkan
agensi luar dan masyarakat telah diadakan. Program seperti Motivasi Telekom
Malaysia, PTPL, Bengkel Kecemerlangan MARA, Universiti Terengganu Darul Iman,
Karangkraf Malaysia, Ceramah Bersama NGO Aman Palestin, Program Jati Diri dan
Kesedaran Sosial Berama Muslim Aid Asia, Yayasan Muslimin, RMC, Perimbu.
Bersama komuniti setempat, penulis telah mengaktifkan PIBG dan Jawatankuasa
Permuafakatan Sekolah dengan melibatkan semua pihak dan agensi setempat
untuk membantu sekolah. Melalui program “Jom Konvoi Ke Masjid”, anjuran BADAR
sekolah, kita telah bekerjasama dengan jawatankuasa masjid untuk memberi
peluang pelajar sekolah ini menguruskan program di masjid termasuklah menyusun
sejadah, azan, mengimamkan solat, mengetuai bacaan yasin, solat hajat dan
mengemas masjid setelah selesai. Walaupun ada keraguan di kalangan guru pada
awalnya kerana khuatir pelajar akan menimbulkan masalah terutama pada malam
hari, penulis telah menyakinkan bahawa kita harus memberi peluang dan
kepercayaan kepada pelajar dan membantu usaha murni mereka di samping berdoa
semoga Allah memberi hidayah kepada mereka untuk berubah. Untuk mengubah
masyarakat, kita haruslah mengubah anak didik kita yang akan menjadi agen
perubahan di dalam masyarakat apabila mereka berada di dalam masyarakat nanti.
Akhirnya, pihak guru dan ibu bapa menyokong pandangan penulis.
Kesan perlaksanaan program ini telah mendapat sokoongan masyarakat dan
mereka memuji usaha sekolah kerana telah berjaya membentuk senario baru di
felda ini yang terkenal dengan kegiatan merempit. Akhlak pelajar juga telah
terbentuk dan mereka mampu mengimarahkan surau pada setiap masa.


Kecemerlangan di dalam setiap aspek yang dibincangkan di atas walaupun
nampak terpisah, hakikatnya adalah ia saling berkaitan. Kejayaan sesaorang
pengetua untuk menjadikan sekolahnya sebagai sekolah cemerlang, bergantung
kepada kejayaannya melaksanakan semua peranan tersebut dengan cemerlang.
Oleh itu, berdasarkan prinsip sekolah cemerlang, kejayaan di dalam menghasilkan
pelajar yang cemerlang di dalam akademiknya juga tidak dapat diterima , jika pelajar
yang terhasil itu tidak sempurna akhlak dan keimanannya, tidak mampu menjadi
modal insan sempurna untuk kecemerlangan negara seperti mana hasrat
kementerian melalui falsafah pendidikan yang menyatakan pendidikan di Malaysia
bertujuan melahirkan pelajar yang seimbang dari segi jasmani, emosi, rohani dan
intelektual (JERI). Semua ini menuntut peranan pengetua sebagai pemimpin untuk
mengembleng seluruh tenaga dengan sokongan semua pihak untuk mencapai
hasrat di atas. Jika gagal, maka seluruh sekolah akan gagal, masyarakat dan negara
akan kecewa dan hasrat Wawasan 2020 akan gagal.


Akhirnya, segala hasrat negara untuk menjadi Negara maju tidak akan
tercapai jika para pengetua yang diberikan tanggungjawab untuk merealisasikan
hasrat Negara gagal untuk melaksanakannya. Pengetua adalah nakhoda yang
memandu bahtera ke destinasi yang dituju. Gagal nakhoda sudah pasti kapal tidak
akan sampai ke destinasi dicita, malah lebih parah jika silap perhitungan akan karam
di lautan dengan segala muatan dan penumpangnya. Kecemerlangan pengetua
sebagai pemimpin amat dituntut agar boleh menjadi suri teladan sepertimana hadis
Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. bermaksud; “Siapa yang memberi contoh teladan, maka dia
akan mendapat pahala dan pahala orang-orang yang meniru perbuatannya hingga
ke hari kiamat.

Penulis : 611111-04-5221

Shahil@Charii Bin Hj. Marzuki, Pembentukan Kerangka Teori Sekolah
Cemerlang,Universiti Malaya
Prof. Madya Dr. Azizi Hj. Yahaya,Hj. Mohammad Anuar Abd Rahman, Mohammad
Yusope Hassan, Gaya Pemudah Cara Di Sekolah: Sejauhmanakah Pengetuapengetua
Mengamalkannya, Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Teknologi
Hussein Mahmood (1997) “ Kepimpinan dan Keberkesanan Sekolah’ Dewan Bahasa
Dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur.
‘Standard Kompentasi Kepengetuaan Sekolah Malaysia’ (2006) Institut Aminuddin
Baki, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia
Edmonds, R.R. (1997). Search for effective schools: The identification and analysis
of city schools that are instructionally effective for poor children. Boston, MA:
Harvard University Press
Edmonds, R. (1979a). Effective schools for the urban poor. Educational Leadership,
37(1), 15-27
Kertas Seminar
Mortimore, P. (1995). Key characteristics of effective schools. Institut Aminuddin
Baki, Genting Highlands.