Sabtu, 27 Februari 2010

istilah dalam pengurusan sumber manusia

ORGANISATION
• An organisation is an institution consisting of two or more people, having a structure and an accepted process for fulfilling functions that will enable the achievement of its goals
• An organisation is the planned coordination of the activities of a number of people for the achievement of some common explicitly purpose or goal, through division of labor and function, and through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility
Components of Organisation
• Mission and Objectives
• Input
• Process
• Output
• Outcome
• Feedback
• Boundary/Environment

Mission

• The purpose or reason for the organisation’s existence
• It tells what the company is providing to society
• To improve the quality of home life by designing, building, marketing, and servicing the best appliances in the world
• We shall build good ships here – at a profit if we can – at a loss if we must – but always good ships

Objectives
• End results of planned activity
• They state what to be accomplished by when and should be quantified if possible
• To achieve 10% annual growth in earnings per share
• To achieve 20-25% return on equity
• To achieve 27% return on capital employed

Process
• The inputs of the organisation transformed to obtain the desired output
• Includes functions of planning, organising, communicating, interacting, working, etc. which combine to form organisational strategies
planning, organising, communicating, interacting, working, etc. which combine to form organisational strategies

Output
• Goods and services produced by transforming the inputs in order to meet the objectives of the organisation

Outcome
• The impact that the output has in fulfilling the objectives of the organisation
has in fulfilling the objectives of the organisation

Feedback
• The organisation has to obtain feedback to determine how its strategies have fared in achieving its objectives and goals for purpose of remedial or corrective actions, if necessary

Boundary
• Each organisation has a boundary which differentiates it from others and determines the internal and external environments

Environment
The external environment is anything outside the boundary of the organisation – technology, political, social, demography or the economy- all of which influence the performance of the organisation

The success of organisation is also influenced by its ability to manage the internal environment which reflects the organisational culture

Characteristics of Organisational Effectiveness- Goal Achievement
• Clearly defined goals
• Increase in output
• Higher productivity
• Better quality of product and service
Satisfying the Customers
• Good corporate image
• Proven quality of output
• Reduced complaints
Organisational Performance
• Effectiveness
• Efficiency
• Quality
• Productivity
• Profitability/ROI
• Quality of Work Life
• Adaptability/Work culture

Effectiveness
• Attainment of organisational objectives (meeting of expected standards)

Efficiency
• Doing the job on time and correctly in relation to goals and objectives
• Efficient utilisation of resources for the job
• Return from investment of time, energy and resources

Quality
• Conformance to standards
• Output fit for use
• Meeting customer’s requirement
Productivity
• Relationship of output to input
Quality of Work Life
• Creating a positive culture; responsiveness to worker’s need, effective communication
Adaptability
• Ability to ensure viability in a changing environment through innovativeness/creativity/managing change/maintaining its competitive edge

Work Culture
• Values held by members of the organisation eg. – creativity and innovation, customer is the boss, employee focus, teamwork, nothing but the best in work performances

LEADERSHIP
• The behavior of an individual when he is directing the activities of a group toward a shared goal
• Interpersonal influence, exercised in a situation, and directed, through the communication process, toward the attainment of a specified goal or goals


LEADERSHIP
• The initiation and maintenance of structure in expectation and interaction
• The process of influencing the activities of an organized group toward goal achievement
• Is a process of giving purpose (meaningful direction) to collective effort, and causing willing effort to be expanded to achieve purpose
• Key to implementation of any change programme. Effective leadership and top management commitment and support critical for quality impr’t


THE MARK OF LEADERS
• Proactive – Ability to anticipate change
• Resourceful – Making change happen
• Interpersonally Skillful – Know most powerful resource is human resource
• Mentally Positive – Outperform others because continue to keep spirit up
• Expertise Driven – Subscribe to the concept of team building


21st Century Organization-Structure
• Nonbureaucratic, with fewer rules and employees
• Limited to fewer levels
• Organized with the expectation that management will lead, lower-level employees will manage
• Characterized by policies and procedures that produce the minimal internal interdependence needed to serve customers

Systems
• Depend on many performance information systems, providing data on customer’s especially
• Distribute performance data widely
• Offer management training and support systems to many people


Culture
• Externally oriented
• Empowering
• Quick to make decisions
• Open and candid
• More risk tolerant


Role of a Leader
• Leading by example
• Setting clear goals
• Communicating down the line
• Delegating/Being fair and consistent
• Recognising individual contribution
• Strengthening team work
• Acting decisively under pressure

Leadership Styles
– Authoritative(Exploitative) – sets goals, tells what is expected/Not too keen to listen
– Authoritative(Benevolent) – Being firm, but does care for staff’s views
– Democratic(Consultative) – Listens to staff before making decision/acting
– Democratic(Participative) – Takes active part in discussing problems and finding solutions

THE LEADERSHIP CHARTER-DO
• Cultivate a high standard of personal ethics
• Have high working energy level always
• Have work priorities/have courage
• Be hardworking, committed and dedicated
• Be creative/be goal oriented/help others
• Always maintain enthusiasm in your work
• Be level headed, always keeping your cool


DON’T
• Attempt to make use of the wrong person for the task/insult people when they don’t do well
• Abandon your “work ship” in crisis
• Critise honest efforts that failed
• Question others’ loyalty
• Threaten people with loss of job
DON’T
• Play one person against the other
• Have favorites in the team
• Steal someone’s credit
• Shirk responsibility

MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS - PLAN
• Set objectives/Identify priorities
• Develop strategies/Forecast
• Budget/Schedule
• Program
• Set policies
• Set procedures


ORGANIZE
• Organization structure
• Job(Position descriptions)
• Position qualifications
• Salary structure and sales


STAFF
• Select people
• Induct people
• Train people
• Develop people


DIRECT
• Communicate
• Co-ordinate
• Delegate
• Motivate
• Reward
• Enforce discipline

CONTROL
• Set up feedback system
• Set up realistic performance standard
• Measure performance
• Evaluate performance
• Rectify poor performance


HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT(HRM)
• The effective and efficient utilisation of human resources to meet organisational objectives
• Involves all those activities necessary to ensure acquisition and maintenance of a productive work force in line with the organisational objectives
• Not only focuses on HR needs and costs but also on the long term issues of organisational continuity and productivity


OBJECTIVE OF HRM
• To have an adequate number of competent employees with needed skills, abilities, knowhow and experience to further organizational goals


AREAS UNDER HRM
• Organisational Management
• Leadership and Strategic Management
• Human Resource Planning
• Recruitment, Selection and Placement
• Human Resource Development
• Corporate Culture and Organization Devt
• Career Planning and Development

Areas
• Performance Appraisal
• Motivation
• Counseling
• Negotiation
• Effective Communication
• Compensation and Benefits
• Safety & Health/Employee & Labor Relations
• Human Resource Research


Personnel Management vs Human Resource Management
• Deals with micro issues/macro issues
• Compartmentalized/Global
• Ad hoc & short term/Planned & long term
• Reactive/Proactive
• Looks at people’s needs from employees’ point of view/organization’s point of view
• Department seen as not important/important


PM vs HRM
• Reports through another line manager/directly to CEO
• Has no role in decision making/has role in decision making process
• Maintains status quo/Agent of change
• Not aware of culture/Facilitator of positive organizational culture

Roles of Human Resource Manager
• Planner – staffing matters
• Facilitator – training and development
• Coordinator – occupational safety & health
• Auditor – performance and compensation
• Mediator – employee & industrial relations

COMPETENCIES
• Behaviours that are necessary to achieve a desired outcome
• Behaviour, skills, knowledge, understanding and personal qualities for competent work performance
• Ability to perform activities within an occupation or function and to maintain the standards expected


Underlying Characteristics
• Motives – things a person consistently thinks about or wants that cause action
• Traits – Physical characteristics and consistent responses to situations of information
• Self-Concept – A person’s attitudes, values, or self-image
• Knowledge – Information a person has in specific content areas
• Skill – Ability to perform a certain physical or mental task


Core Competencies
• Accountable/Customer Focus
• Discipline/Integrity
• Loyalty/Social
• Sensitivity/Tolerance
• Transparency


Core Managerial Competencies
• Communication/Teamwork/Motivation
• Drive and Resilience/Creativity/Leadership
• Implementation/Decision Making/Technical
• Strategic Orientation
• Commercial Awareness
• Organizational know how/Broad Scanning
• Information Seeking/Relationship Building and Networking/Negotiation/Deal Making,Emotional Stability/Cultural Sensitivity


Professional Competencies
• Group and Interpersonal Effectiveness – conceptual thinking, decision making, influence, leadership, change management, problem solving, strategic planning
• Leadership Effectiveness – coaching, diversity management, facilitation, negotiation, teamwork
• Personal Effectiveness – achievement orientation, adaptation, analytical thinking, ownership, resilience, self management, technology capability, oral and written communication


Functional Competencies
• Job related knowledge and skills associated with an individual’s capability to complete his/her tasks and work

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