Sabtu, 23 Oktober 2010

Constructivist teaching strategies

Constructivist teaching strategies
Characteristics of Constructivist Teaching

One of the primary goals of using constructivist teaching is that students learn how to learn by giving them the training to take initiative for their own learning experiences.

According to Audrey Gray, the characteristics of a constructivist classroom are as follows:

* the learners are actively involved
* the environment is democratic
* the activities are interactive and student-centered
* the teacher facilitates a process of learning in which students are encouraged to be responsible and autonomous

Examples of constructivist activities

Furthermore, in the constructivist classroom, students work primarily in groups and learning and knowledge are interactive and dynamic. There is a great focus and emphasis on social and communication skills, as well as collaboration and exchange of ideas [1]. This is contrary to the traditional classroom in which students work primarily alone, learning is achieved through repetition, and the subjects are strictly adhered to and are guided by a textbook. Some activities encouraged in constructivist classrooms are:

* Experimentation: students individually perform an experiment and then come together as a class to discuss the results.
* Research projects: students research a topic and can present their findings to the class.
* Field trips. This allows students to put the concepts and ideas discussed in class in a real-world context. Field trips would often be followed by class discussions.
* Films. These provide visual context and thus bring another sense into the learning experience.
* Class discussions. This technique is used in all of the methods described above. It is one of the most important distinctions of constructivist teaching methods.[2]

Constructivist approaches can also be used in online learning. For example, tools such as discussion forums, wikis and blogs can enable learners to actively construct knowledge.

Because existing knowledge schemata are explicitly acknowledged as a starting point for new learning, constructivist approaches tend to validate individual and cultural differences and diversity.[citation needed]

Role of teachers

In the constructivist classroom, the teacher’s role is to prompt and facilitate discussion. Thus, the teacher’s main focus should be on guiding students by asking questions that will lead them to develop their own conclusions on the subject.

David Jonassen identified three major roles for facilitators to support students in constructivist learning environments:

* Modeling
* Coaching
* Scaffolding[3]

Constructivist Learning Environments (CLEs)

Jonassen has proposed a model for developing constructivist learning environments (CLEs) around a specific learning goal. This goal may take one of several forms, from least to most complex:

* Question or issue
* Case study
* Long-term Project
* Problem (multiple cases and projects integrated at the curriculum level)

Jonassen recommends making the learning goals engaging and relevant but not overly structured.

In CLEs, learning is driven by the problem to be solved; students learn content and theory in order to solve the problem. This is different from traditional objectivist teaching where the theory would be presented first and problems would be used afterwards to practice theory.

Depending on students' prior experiences, related cases and scaffolding may be necessary for support. Instructors also need to provide an authentic context for tasks, plus information resources, cognitive tools, and collaborative tools.[3]

Constructivist assessment

Traditionally, assessment in the classrooms is based on testing. In this style, it is important for the student to produce the correct answers. However, in constructivist teaching, the process of gaining knowledge is viewed as being just as important as the product. Thus, assessment is based not only on tests, but also on observation of the student, the student’s work, and the student’s points of view [1]. Some assessment strategies include:

* Oral discussions. The teacher presents students with a “focus” question and allows an open discussion on the topic.
* KWL(H) Chart (What we know, What we want to know, What we have learned, How we know it). This technique can be used throughout the course of study for a particular topic, but is also a good assessment technique as it shows the teacher the progress of the student throughout the course of study.
* Mind Mapping. In this activity, students list and categorize the concepts and ideas relating to a topic.
* Hands-on activities. These encourage students to manipulate their environments or a particular learning tool. Teachers can use a checklist and observation to assess student success with the particular material.
* Pre-testing. This allows a teacher to determine what knowledge students bring to a new topic and thus will be helpful in directing the course of study.[2]

An example of a Lesson Taught with a Constructivist background

A good example of a lesson being taught in a constructivist way, with the teacher mediating learning rather than directly teaching the class is shown by the example of Faraday's candle. There are various forms of this lesson, but all are developed from the Christmas lectures Faraday gave on the functioning of candles. In open constructivist lessons using these lectures as a basis, students are encouraged to discover for themselves how candles work. They do this first by making simple observations, from which they later build ideas and hypotheses which they then go on to test. The teachers acts to encourage this learning. If successful, students can use this lesson to understand the components of combustion—an important chemical topic.[4]

Constructivism for Adults

Is constructivism just for kids? Constructivist philosophy has a long history of application in education programs for young children, but is used less frequently in adult learning environments. As humans develop, there are qualitative changes in their ability to think logically about experiences, but the processes by which learning occur, cognitive adaptation and social mediation, are believed to be continuous or remain the same throughout the life [5]. At the heart of constructivist philosophy is the belief that knowledge is not GIVEN but GAINED through real experiences that have purpose and meaning to the learner, and the exchange of perspectives about the experience with others [6] (Piaget & Inhelder, 1969; Vygotsky,1978).

Learning environments for adults based on constructivist philosophy include opportunities for students to make meaningful connections between new material and previous experience, through discovery. One of the simplest ways to do this is asking open-ended questions. Open-ended questions such as “Tell me about at time when….” or “How might this information be useful to you?” causes learners to think about how new information may related to their own experience. Student responses to such questions are opportunities for experiencing the perspectives of others. For these questions to be effective it is critical that instructors focus on teaching content that is useful for participants. The importance of using these types of strategies with adults contributes to what [7] Bain(2004 p. 4) noted as critical learning environments where instructors “embed” the skills they teaching in “authentic tasks that will arouse curiosity, challenge students to rethink assumptions and examine their mental modes of reality”.

Arguments against constructivist teaching techniques
Main article: Constructivism (learning theory)

Critics have voiced the following arguments against constructivist based teaching instruction:

* A group of cognitive scientists has also questioned the central claims of constructivism, saying that they are either misleading or contradict known findings.[8]

* One possible deterrent for this teaching method is that, due to the emphasis on group work, the ideas of the more active students may dominate the group’s conclusions.[1]

While proponents of constructivism argue that constructivist students perform better than their peers when tested on higher-order reasoning, the critics of constructivism argue that this teaching technique forces students to "reinvent the wheel." Supporters counter that "Students do not reinvent the wheel but, rather, attempt to understand how it turns, how it functions."[1] Proponents argue that students — especially elementary school-aged children — are naturally curious about the world, and giving them the tools to explore it in a guided manner will serve to give them a stronger understanding of it[1].

Mayer (2004)[9] developed a literature review spanning fifty years and concluded "The research in this brief review shows that the formula constructivism = hands-on activity is a formula for educational disaster." His argument is that active learning is often suggested by those subscribing to this philosophy. In developing this instruction these educators produce materials that require learning to be behaviorally active and not be "cognitively active."[9] That is, although they are engaged in activity, they may not be learning (Sweller, 1988). Mayer recommends using guided discovery, a mix of direct instruction and hands-on activity, rather than pure discovery: "In many ways, guided discovery appears to offer the best method for promoting constructivist learning."[9]

Kirchner et al. (2006) agree with the basic premise of constructivism, that learners construct knowledge, but are concerned with the instructional design recommendations of this theoretical framework. "The constructivist description of learning is accurate, but the instructional consequences suggested by constructivists do not necessarily follow." (Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006, p. 78). Specifically, they say instructors often design unguided instruction that relies on the learner to "discover or construct essential information for themselves" (Kirchner et al., 2006, p75).

For this reason they state that it "is easy to agree with Mayer’s (2004)[9] recommendation that we “move educational reform efforts from the fuzzy and nonproductive world of ideology—which sometimes hides under the various banners of constructivism—to the sharp and productive world of theory- based research on how people learn” (p. 18). Finally Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006) cite Mayer[9] to conclude fifty years of empirical results do not support unguided instruction.

Another important consideration in evaluating the potential benefits/limitations of constructivist teaching approach is to consider the large number of varied personal characteristics as well as prevalence of learning problems in children today. For example, in a solely constructivist approach was employed in a classroom of you children then a significant number of children, for example say with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, might not be able to focus on their perceptions of learning experiences long enough to build a knowledge base from the event. In other words, constructivist theory is biased to students who desire to learn more and are capable of focusing attention to the learning process independently. A mixed approach that incorporates components of constructivist learning along with other approaches, including more guided teaching strategies, would better meet the learning needs of the majority of students in a classroom by accounting for differences between learning styles and capacities

Using Primary Sources on the Internet To Teach and Learn History

Using Primary Sources on the Internet To Teach and Learn History. ERIC Digest.

by Shiroma, Deanne

The Internet enables teachers to enhance the teaching and learning of history through quick and extensive access to primary sources. This Digest discusses: (1) types and uses of primary sources, (2) using the Internet to obtain primary sources, and (3) exemplary World Wide Web sites providing primary sources.


Primary sources are the building blocks of history. These traces of the human past include ideals, customs, institutions, languages, literature, material products, and the physical remains of various people (Craver 1999, 8).

Primary sources are not limited to printed documents such as letters, newspapers, diaries, and poems. Artifacts (art, pottery, articles of clothing, tools, and food), places (ecosystems, dwellings, and other buildings and structures), sounds (music, stories, and folklore), and images (paintings, photographs, videos/movies) can also be considered primary sources.

A commonly overlooked type of primary source is historic places, the sites of significant events, which communicate the past to students in numerous ways. Historic places "speak through relationships to their settings, their plan and design, their building materials, their atmosphere and ambience, their furniture, and other objects they contain" (Harper 1997, 1).

Primary sources are keys to reconstructing and interpreting the past. Teachers and students alike might consider this adage: learning is not received; it is achieved. Introducing and using primary sources in the history classroom will almost certainly lead to active learning and development of critical thinking, reasoning, and problem solving (Craver 1999, 10-12). As students work with primary sources, they have the opportunity to do more than just absorb information; they can also analyze, evaluate, recognize bias and contradiction, and weigh the significance of evidence presented by the source (Percoco 1998).

Primary sources enhance the learning process by allowing students to construct their own understandings of people, events, and ideas. Students can "uncover, discover, and reflect on content and their conceptions of such through inquiry, investigation, research, and analysis" (Marlow & Page 1998, 11).


The Internet is a virtual gateway to an abundance of on-line educational resources; it is important to remember, however, that much of the information on the Internet is uncensored and unregulated. Students may be exposed to inappropriate Web sites. Therefore, teachers may wish to take precautionary measures to maintain safe learning environments, such as searching the Web to locate and screen the primary source material for appropriateness and validity prior to using it in class. This conserves classroom time, overcomes the limitations of the one-computer classroom, and reduces the need to purchase Internet filtering software.

Until recently, "surfing" was the typical approach to finding information on the World Wide Web. Surfing begins when the user starts on a particular World Wide Web site and follows links from page to page (making some educated guesses along the way), hoping to sooner or later arrive at the desired information. When you have time to explore, surfing can be fun. But when you need to find information quickly, surfing can be inefficient and ineffective. A number of tools exist that enable users to find information on the World Wide Web more effectively and efficiently. One such tool is a search engine.

Though they are similar, not all search engines are created equal. Selecting the best search engine depends upon the user's experience level and an understanding of which elements in the documents are indexed by each search engine. Meta-search engines, which search multiple search engines simultaneously, are preferable. One example of a meta-search engine is Ask Jeeves Its user-friendly interface allows searching using either questions or keywords. Another meta-search engine is MetaCrawler, which pools and collates pages found on several of the major search engines with consistently reliable and accurate results.

For those wishing to avoid sites unsuitable for children, several strategies can be used. The first and most desirable strategy is to encourage appropriate use and good decision making by students. This does not, however, eliminate the risk that students will inadvertently or unintentionally come upon sites containing offensive material. Another strategy is to use "child-safe" search engines that index age-appropriate sites and focus on the specific needs and interests of children. One of the best "child-specific" search engines is Ask Jeeves For Kids, which allows children to search by asking questions in plain English (also known as "natural language" searching) and offers options to help narrow the search in cases of broad or ambiguous questions. Other major search engines for children are CyberSleuth Kids, a search guide for K-12 students, and KidsClick Web Search!/, created for children by librarians (Braun & Risinger 1999).


One of the best Web sites for obtaining primary sources is the American Memory Historical Collections for the National Digital Library Maintained by the Library of Congress, American Memory features an extensive collection of documents in original format, including manuscripts, sheet music, printed texts, maps, motion pictures, photos and prints, and sound recordings. The following are examples of sites that focus on more specific types of primary source material.

The National Security Archive was founded in 1985 by a group of journalists and scholars that had obtained documentation from the U.S. government under the Freedom of Information Act. Associated with George Washington University's Gelman Library, the Archive is one of the world's largest non-governmental repositories of declassified government documents on international affairs. Current collections include Chile, China, Cuba, Guatemala, Honduras, India-Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Eastern Europe, and nuclear history.

Authorized under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 and administered by the National Park Service, the National Register of Historic Places features over 2,300 National Historic Landmarks. Properties listed in the Register include districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that are significant in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, and culture.

National Anthems of the World contains audio clips of many national anthems. The site also contains information about the economy, geography, history, people, and government of the countries.

There are so many Web sites offering a wide variety of primary sources that it is beyond the scope of this Digest to list them all. Here is a brief list of additional sites:

* National Archives and Records Administration: The Digital Classroom:

* On-line Archival Collections - Center for Women's History & Culture:

* Eye Witness: History Through The Eyes Of Those Who Lived It:

* Repositories of Primary Sources:

* Euro Docs: Primary Historical Documents From Western Europe:

* Social Studies Sources:

By encouraging their students to locate and work with primary sources available through the Internet, teachers empower them to develop inquiry skills through active learning methods. Students learn to ask questions and seek answers independently. Thus, they are challenged to process information and comprehend their complex world.


The following list of resources includes references used to prepare this Digest. The items followed by an ED number are available in microfiche and/or paper copies from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS). For information about prices, contact EDRS, 7420 Fullerton Road, Suite 110, Springfield, Virginia 22153-2852; telephone numbers are (703) 440-1400 and (800) 443-3742. Entries followed by an EJ number, annotated monthly in CURRENT INDEX TO JOURNALS IN EDUCATION (CIJE), are not available through EDRS. However, they can be located in the journal section of most larger libraries by using the bibliographic information provided, requested through Interlibrary Loan, or ordered from commercial reprint services.

Braun, Joseph A., and C. Frederick Risinger. SOCIAL STUDIES: THE INTERNET BOOK. Washington, DC: National Council for the Social Studies, 1999.


Harper, Marilyn. INCLUDING HISTORIC PLACES IN THE SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM. ERIC Digest. Bloomington, IN: ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education, 1997. ED 415 178.


Lynn, Karen. TEACHING WITH DOCUMENTS: A BIBLIOGRAPHY. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1991. ED 339 626.

Marlow, Bruce, and Marilyn Page. CREATING AND SUSTAINING THE CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOM. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc., 1998.

Milbury, Peter. "Primary Sources: Second to None on the Web." BOOK REPORT 18 (May-June 1999): 45-48. EJ 589 886.

Milbury, Peter and Brett Silva. "Problem Based Learning, Primary Sources, and Information Literacy. MULTIMEDIA SCHOOLS 5 (September-October 1998): 40-44. EJ 574 027.

Nash, Gary B., and Linda Symcox. "Bring History Alive in the Classroom: A Collaborative Project." OAH MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 6 (Summer 1991): 25-29. EJ 445 194.

Percoco, James A. A PASSION FOR THE PAST: CREATIVE TEACHING OF U.S. HISTORY. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, Inc., 1998. ED 431 657.

Secrets of Great History Teachers

Interview with Allyson M. Poska

6. What is your most effective classroom activity?

I think my most effective assignment is an exercise on the second day of class in Western Civilization. I divide the class into groups of five. On the screen, I put up the cover of the Grateful Dead’s Wake of the Flood album, with all kinds of ambiguous imagery. I ask students to talk for a few minutes together about what they see on the album cover. Then we have a class discussion about what they see and why they interpret each image that way.

This exercise has numerous benefits. First, it allows students to make personal connections from day one, hopefully tempering any fear of talking in front of their peers. Second, this exercise helps students realize that they “know” things about unfamiliar texts (or in this case, an image), and that they can use their own knowledge and experience as interpretive guides. Finally, students become familiar with the idea that there are many valid ways to interpret the same information.
7. What are your most important goals/aims in teaching the survey course? What do you most want your students to take away from a survey course with you?

I want students to see the past as populated by ordinary people like themselves. Some of those people faced problems and had exciting moments similar to their own; others had experiences with which they can only try to empathize. Either way, they have access to the past and the past has connections to their lives.
8. How do you encourage class participation?

The most important assignment is that every student must contribute to the class discussion of a primary source reading once each week. If you contribute, either with a question, an answer, or a comment, you get credit. If you don’t talk, you get no credit. The value of that contribution is high. Class discussion is 30% of the total grade.

At first, some students balk, but with time, most learn that having completed even some of the assigned reading, they have something to say about the topic at hand. I believe that learning to interpret texts and communicate those interpretations is the most important skill we can offer our students. Moreover, participating in class discussion teaches them that most of learning about history is not being right or wrong, but about thinking, analyzing, and formulating your own ideas.

Finally, although few will use the reading or writing skills that are a part of history classes, most of them will have to speak in front of people in their post-college lives. Being comfortable articulating their ideas is a useful skill that students can take with them, even if they remember little or nothing about the rest of the material.
9. What is your most memorable teaching experience?

I have had a couple of unexpected teaching moments that were almost tangential to the class, but critical learning moments nonetheless. The first was many years ago in the historical methods class. We all taught the same syllabus for the class and it required students to dress up for their final presentations. I told that class that they had to dress nicely, but not gender-specifically (men did not have to wear ties and women did not have to wear dresses).

Much to my surprise, I arrived on the final presentation day to find two of the young men in the class dressed in drag. They had not consulted one another. Listening to a presentation on Napoleon at Waterloo and a presentation on mining strikes in West Virginia by men dressed in women’s clothing was quite an experience.

We all had a good laugh, but more importantly, we had a remarkable experience with gender expectations and how the classroom is often, by default, very traditionally gendered. My students had never considered how asking men to wear a tie and women to wear dresses made visible manifestations of masculinity and femininity a part of an assignment in which gender should not have been a factor.

I also had a terrific learning moment in a seminar on Women in Latin America. At the end of the semester, I have the students read a recent collection of fiction by Latina writers to discuss how the women’s history has impacted the experience of Latinas in the present.

As it turned out, that year many of the writers in the collection were lesbians. Before class, the Latinas in my class all came to tell me that they didn’t like the stories because, as they assured me, there were no gays or lesbians in Latin culture. They believed that homosexuality was an Anglo thing. They knew… they were Latinas.

We then talked about how homosexuality was often not acknowledged in their community, a topic discussed by many of the writers. I asked whether any of them had an aunt or cousin or friend who had lived with the same woman for years “as a roommate.” However, when that aunt moved to Los Angeles, her roommate moved along her. Or, did any of them have an uncle who never married, but brought his same male “friend” to family events for decades.

With each new hypothetical example I offered, the students began to think of people in their families who fit the bill. One by one, they would say, “no way! Uncle Ricardo and Michael!,” or “not Tia Susana and Laura!” Suddenly, homosexuality was not just a fictional construct or the export of another culture, but something that they could consider as a possibility in their community and in their own families. This lesson was not the point of the class, but I know from later conversations with those same students that it was a transitional moment in some of their lives.
10. How has teaching changed over your career?

When I was a new teacher, I was very concerned about what I perceived as conflicting demands of my students, my colleagues, my intellectual interests, and the discipline. Students expected to learn one type of history, my colleagues expected me to teach another, I was interested in yet another part of history, and (so I believed) the discipline expected me to bring key concepts to the classroom.

However, with time, I began to see that these different expectations were not as inflexible as I had imagined and that I was a better teacher when I taught my own topics and concepts. My passion was infectious. Students learned more and learned more easily.

Moreover, my colleagues were less interested in the details of my classes than I had imagined. By changing tactics, my students got a better education and my needs as a teacher and intellectual were better meshed.
11. What constitutes good teaching?

Good teaching differs from person to person, but for me the best teaching happens when I am at a critical nexus with my students. At that moment I am able to work with my students as intellectuals and as people with a certain set of skills and experiences and at the same time encourage them to move beyond that place both socio/emotionally and intellectually. It is a hard place to find, but when I can help students move to a new point in their development, they learn the most, are most changed by what they learn, and find the process the most enjoyable.
12. Why do you think students often find history “boring”?

I think that students are bored by history for a couple of reasons. First, for some students it is just not the best way for them to understand the world. They understand how the world works through religion, science, or philosophy. Or quite frankly, many people just are not interested in understanding how the world works.

As teachers, we should not be frustrated by that fact. We should just acknowledge those differences and make the class as interesting and as meaningful as possible for those students. Not everyone has to love history.

Second, students often see no relationship between their own lives and the past. Our culture’s emphasis on the push forward towards a better, modern, or post-modern future makes history seem irrelevant to them. Although as scholars we learn from the past and make connections between the past and the present quite easily, we often need to be more assertive in providing those connections for students.
13. What tips would you give to a new history teacher?

I would tell a new teacher to teach what she/he wants and loves, not what she/he thinks students “should” know or what his/her colleagues might want. When it comes to teaching, let your passions be your guide. Also, don’t feel compelled to reinvent the wheel. Ask friends and colleagues for help with lectures and assignments. Such requests make the teaching process more collaborative and take away some of the stress of early semesters.

Interview conducted by Jenny Reeder; completed in March 2008.

Interview with Nancy A. Hewitt

14. What, in your view, constitutes good teaching?

I think good teaching can come in many forms. For me what is critical is that teachers work to their strengths. I was never going to be the kind of spellbinding lecturer that was the model of pedagogical greatness when I got out of graduate school (in 1981). But I was an excellent discussion leader as a TA, and I had read a lot of work in feminist and other progressive pedagogies that emphasized active learning and student engagement with primary sources, debates, etc. So I decided early on that I was going to incorporate discussion into my teaching no matter what size the class. Last year I taught an eighty-five student survey in American Women’s History without a TA and regularly broke the room up into groups of eight or nine students each to analyze documents, websites, or articles. It was certainly a bit chaotic at times, but it definitely engaged most students in new ways and reminded them that learning was a dynamic process.

I am less self-righteous about this teaching technique now than I used to be. I did think early on that my colleagues, almost all men, who simply lectured to their students were doing them a disservice. Now I’ve decided that some faculty really are terrific lecturers and that they can best convey information through that medium. Others are more like me, strong discussion leaders, who can integrate lecture and discussion effectively. Some of my younger colleagues have really honed their high tech skills, and can present amazing material via Power Point and CDRoms. Of course, I have also had colleagues at the various universities where I’ve taught who did not care much about teaching, and didn’t think much about teaching strategies. I am not sure that it would have mattered which techniques they used, as they were simply not engaged by undergraduate education. Teaching was what they had to do to carry on a career in research and publication.

I feel fortunate because for me, teaching has enriched my research and writing and visa versa. I think that if you can develop a teaching style that works to your strengths and a vision of yourself that combines teaching and research as central to your life as a historian, then you will create a fulfilling career for yourself, and one that is rewarding in a range of ways.

15. What tips would you give to a new history teacher—particularly someone approaching the survey course?

My tips for new teachers, especially in survey courses, emerge from my thoughts on good teaching. Hone your best skills, find a comfort zone in the classroom so that you learn to enjoy teaching and see it as intellectually challenging. Survey courses can wear you down because of their size, the writing and grading expectations, the wide range of students in any one class, and the fact that you may teach the same course over and over again. But make the survey your friend! It is the best place to introduce students to your own perspectives on the past, to recruit good students for your upper level courses, to introduce graduate students to innovative teaching techniques and strategies, and to remind yourself of the larger narratives that provide the context for your own, more focused, research and writing.

The first couple of times you teach the survey, treat it as a learning experience. Get as much advice going in as you can about what students find interesting to read, how capable they are in terms of writing assignments, what kinds of exams are expected by your department, etc. It is incredibly frustrating for both the teacher and the students if you teach at a level that is too high or too low for the students in your class. Keep experimenting, including revising assignments in the midst of the semester, if it seems like the students are either overwhelmed or bored. Ask former teachers or fellow graduate students who have already taught the survey to send you syllabi, group project assignments, etc. Teaching is a collective enterprise in the sense that we all benefit from sharing ideas, tips, even lecture outlines. Then over the years, you want to both polish what you have developed and to introduce new ideas, books, projects, assignments, lectures. To keep the survey fresh means ordering a new book, using a website in place of an article, trying out new video clips or slides, or introducing a whole new lecture or discussion topic periodically. Once you have a firm foundation—whether that’s a full set of lectures, a series of PowerPoint presentations or a group of collaborative projects and discussion topics—the survey can be a joy to teach. And even getting to that foundation can be less painful if you see it as a long term investment of time and energy, and if you remember that for many of us, a college-level survey course was what captured our imagination and started us thinking about becoming a historian in the first place.

Interview conducted by Sharon Leon; completed in May 2005.


Sejarah wajib lulus 2013

NAJIB mengangkat tangan Muhyiddin selepas ucapan penggulungan perbahasan pada perhimpunan agung parti di PWTC, semalam.
NAJIB mengangkat tangan Muhyiddin selepas ucapan penggulungan perbahasan pada perhimpunan agung parti di PWTC, semalam.
Kementerian Pelajaran perlu masa latih guru ajar silibus baru

KUALA LUMPUR: Sejarah menjadi mata pelajaran wajib lulus bagi peperiksaan Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) mulai 2013 dan dilaksanakan sebagai mata pelajaran teras mengikut Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR) tahun berikutnya.
Timbalan Perdana Menteri yang juga Menteri Pelajaran, Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin, berkata syarat wajib lulus itu seperti mata pelajaran Bahasa Malaysia sebagai syarat mendapat SPM.
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Sambil menjelaskan keputusan Kementerian Pelajaran itu selaras pandangan sebahagian besar perwakilan pada Perhimpunan Agung UMNO 2010, beliau berkata, Sejarah ketika ini mata pelajaran teras pada peringkat sekolah menengah yang wajib diambil semua pelajar tetapi tidak wajib lulus.

“Kita kena beri masa sedikit bagi mengelakkan terkejut. Tempoh diperlukan untuk kita melatih guru dan menyediakan pelajar menghadapi sistem baru ini,” katanya ketika menggulung perbahasan, semalam.

Dalam konteks sama, Muhyiddin berkata, Sejarah dijadikan mata pelajaran teras mengikut KSSR mulai 2014, berbanding elemennya diajar melalui subjek Kajian Tempatan di sekolah rendah pada ketika ini.

Katanya, KSSR dilaksanakan dari Tahun Satu mulai tahun depan, diikuti Tahun Dua dan seterusnya sehingga lengkap satu pusingan pada 2016.
“Kurikulum baru ini adalah penambahbaikan Kurikulum Baru Sekolah Rendah (KBSR).
KSSR akan memberi penekanan kepada pendekatan secara hands-on learning, di samping keupayaan berbahasa, pembelajaran berasaskan projek dan pelbagai jenis pembelajaran yang menyeronokkan,” katanya.

Muhyiddin berkata, kementerian juga bersetuju memulakan pelaksanaan pentaksiran berasaskan sekolah pada 2014 menggantikan peperiksaan Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) yang akan dimansuhkan, iaitu dua tahun lebih awal berbanding perancangan asal.

Beliau juga bersetuju kemungkinan satu laporan baru dikeluarkan mengenai cara menambah baik keseluruhan sistem pendidikan negara pada masa depan, sebagai langkah penilaian semula secara berterusan.

Mengenai pendidikan teknik dan vokasional (VOCTECH), Muhyiddin berkata, ketika ini hanya kira-kira 10 peratus atau 40,706 daripada keseluruhan pelajar mengambil bidang itu.

Beliau berkata, sasaran ditetapkan Kementerian Pelajaran ialah meningkatkan bilangan itu sekali ganda iaitu kepada 20 peratus (81,000 pelajar) menjelang 2015.

Mengenai kebajikan guru, Muhyiddin berkata, Perdana Menteri, Datuk Seri Najib Razak, bersetuju peruntukan RM10 juta diberi kepada Yayasan Guru Malaysia Berhad.

Bagi menjaga kebajikan guru, Yayasan Guru Tun Hussein Onn ditubuhkan dijangka awal tahun depan

Rabu, 20 Oktober 2010


Sabtu, 9 Oktober 2010

pendekatan dalam PSK

bahan kursus



Prof. Madya Dr. Chang Lee Hoon
Fakulti Pendidikan
Universiti Malaya
Kuala Lumpur


Sukatan Pelajaran Pendidikan Sivik and Kewarganegaraan KBSR/KBSM memberi cabaran dan peluang kepada para pendidik untuk melahirkan warganegara Malaysia yang patriotik dan bertanggungjawab supaya mereka sanggup dan boleh memberi sumbangan yang berkesan dalam pembangunan dan kesejahteraan negara dan global. Selain daripada itu, dalam abad 21 ini, perubahan dan kompleksiti yang sentiasa berlaku di dalam komuniti tempatan, kebangsaan dan global telah menambah cabaran kepada para pendidik untuk mendidik murid menjadi warganegara Malaysia yang berkesan serta menjadikan wawasan negara kita sesuatu realiti.

Sehubungan dengan itu, pendekatan dalam Pendidikan Sivik and Kewarganegaraan (PSK) KBSR/KBSM seharusnya menggalakkan murid menyertai secara aktif dan interaktif dalam proses pembelajaran. Pendekatan penyertaaan murid secara aktif dan interaktif dalam PSK ini akan memberi peluang kepada murid mengalami dan melibatkan diri dalam proses memperolehi pengetahuan, kemahiran serta nilai sivik dan kewarganegaraan. Dalam kata lain, dengan menggunakan pendekatan penyertaan murid secara aktif dan interaktif dalam PSK, guru seharuslah kurang bercakap dan bertanya. Sebaliknya, murid akan diberi peluang untuk bertanya, berkomunikasi dan berinteraksi antara satu sama lain dalam memberi dan berkongsi pendapat dan idea untuk memahami dan mengkaji peranan dan tanggungjawab mereka sebagai warganegara Malaysia yang patriotrik dan tanggungjawab.

Berlandaskan kepada kepentingan penglibatan murid dalam proses pembelajaran, maka pendekatan penyertaan murid secara aktif dan interaktif dalam PSK akan melibatkan strategi pengajaran dan pembelajaran seperti yang berikut:
(1) Pembelajaran aktif
(2) Pembelajaran koperatif
(3) Pembelajaran penyelesaiaan masalah
(4) Pembelajaran mesra budaya dan
(5) Pembelajaran berkhidmat


Pembelajaran aktif dalam PSK akan membolehkan murid memahami peranan dan tanggungjawabnya sebagai seorang ahli yang berkesan dalam pelbagai kumpulan sosial (keluarga, sekolah, rakan, komuniti tempatan, agama, negara dan global) sama ada pada masa kini atau masa depan. Ini adalah kerana pembelajaran aktif melibatkan penyertaan murid dalam proses pembelajaran hands on dan minds-on dan bukanlah secara pasif atau flat. Melalui pembelajaran yang bermakna sebegini, murid akan diberi peluang untuk mengembangkan kemahiran dan nilai serta mengaplikasikan pengetahuan sivik dan kewarganegaraan dalam kehidupan hariannya.

Untuk mengaplikasikan pembelajaran aktif dalam PSK, aktiviti pembelajaran yang memfokuskan murid seharusnya mencabar, menarik dan relevan supaya murid dapat mengaplikasikan hasil pembelajaran yang diperolehi daripada sesuatu aktiviti kepada suasana pembelajaran yang lain. Dalam kata lain, melalui aktiviti pembelajaran yang aktif murid dapat mempelajari sesuatu yang bermakna kerana mereka akan diberi peluang untuk mengaitkan pengetahuan, kemahiran dan nilai sivik dan kewarganegaraan dalam sesuatu aktiviti pembelajaran.

Terdapatnya pelbagai aktiviti pembelajaran aktif yang boleh digunakan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran PSK. Antaranya ialah:

• Perbincangan atau kerja kumpulan kecil seperti buzzing, sumbang saran, main peranan, simulasi, debat dan forum.
• Aktiviti pembelajaran koperatif berkumpulan seperti berfikir-berpasangan-berkongsi, permainan,main peranan, peer tutoring dan jigsaw.
• Aktiviti pembelajaran siber. Contohnya, seperti mencari maklumat melalui internet, membina laman web atau bertukar pendapat melalui emel dengan murid dari sekolah lain sama ada dalam atau luar negeri.
• Demonstrasi sama ada oleh guru atau murid seperti cara penampilan diri dalam menjaga maruah diri (KBSR Tahun 4) dan cara menolak pelawaan rakan untuk melakukan sesuatu yang negatif (KBSM Tingkatan 1)
• Projek yang dicadangkan oleh murid sendiri seperti mengadakan pertunjukan pakaian tradisional (KBSR Tahun 4) atau pertandingan bercerita “cerita rakyat” Malaysia (KBSM TIngkatan 1)
• Pembelajaran refleksi kendiri seperti menyimpan jurnal dan diari mengenai cita-cita diri (KBSR Tahun 4) atau perasaan mengenai peristiwa yang lalu yang berkaitan dengan hubungan murid dengan rakan atau ahli keluarga yang lain (KBSM Tingkatan 1)


Pembelajaran secara koperatif akan mewujudkan suasana pembelajaran yang saling pengantungan positif di mana murid akan bekerja dan belajar bersama-sama untuk mencapai sesuatu matlamat yang tertentu. Pembelajaran secara koperatif adalah penting dalam PSK kerana melalui proses pembelajaran berkumpulan mereka akan dapat memahami kepentingan saling membantu di tempat kerja atau keluarga untuk mencapai kejayaan kumpulan.
Pembelajaran secara koperatif dalam PSK mempunyai ciri-ciri yang tertentu yang membezakan daripada aktivti pembelajaran tradisional di mana murid berkumpul untuk melakukan sesuatu aktiviti seperti yang digambarkan dalam jadual yang berikut:

Jadual: Perbandingan antara pembelajaran berkumpulan secara koperatif dengan pembelajaran berkumpulan yang tradisional

Pembelajaran Berkumpulan Secara Koperatif
-Saling pengantungan positif
- Akauntabiliti individu
-Kumpulan yang heterogenous
-Bersama-sama memimpin
-Bersama-sama bertanggungjawab
-Penekanan kepada tugas dan proses
-Kemahiran sosial diajar secara langsung
-Guru memerhati dan membimbing
-Kumpulan menilai keberkesanan kendiri

Pembelajaran Berkumpulan Secara Tradisional
-Tidak ada saling pengantungan positif
-Tidak ada akauntabiliti individu
-Kumpulan yang homogenous
-Seorang pemimpin sahaja yang dilantik
-Bertanggungjawab terhadap diri sahaja
-Penekanan kepada tugas
-Kemahiran sosial diajar secara implisit dan kadang kala diketepikan
-Guru tidak mementingkan fungsi kumpulan
-Tidak ada proses berkumpulan

(Sumber: Johnson Johnson & Holubee dalam Gunter, Estes & Schwab, 1999. Instruction. A models approach (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon)

Berlandaskan kepada ciri-ciri pembelajaran berkumpulan secara koperatif, maka boleh dikatakan bahawa matlamat PSK dalam melahirkan warga negara yang bersatu padu dan erat antara anggota masyarakat yang berbilang kaum boleh dicapai melalui pembelajaran koperatif dalam kelas PSK. Contohnya, semasa berinteraski dalam kumpulan yang heterogenous, murid akan lebih peka terhadap perasaaan dan pandangan ahli kumpulan lain dan seterusnya akan mewujudkan persefahaman dan saling hormat antara satu sama lain untuk kebaikan bersama. Segala konflik yang dihadapi oleh kumpulan akan dapat ditangani dengan cara bekerjasama dan bertanggungjawab bersama untuk memastikan bahawa kumpulan berjaya.

Terdapat pelbagai aktiviti pembelajaran koperatif yang boleh digunakan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran PSK. Diantaranya ialah:
• berfikir-berpasangan-berkongsi seperti kekuatan diri (KBSR Tahun 4) atau cara membantu anggota keluarga di rumah (KBSM Tingkatan 1)
• permainan
• main peranan
• projek
• peer tutoring
• jigsaw dan
• aktiviti pembelajaran siber


Tidak dapat dinafikan bahawa murid akan menjadi pemimpin masa depan dalam merealisisikan wawasan negara kita. Dalam era globalisasi pada abad 21 ini, di mana perubahan dan kompleksiti sentiasa berlaku di dalam komuniti tempatan, kebangsaan dan global, mereka akan menghadapi pelbagai cabaran untuk menyelesaikan masalah, sama peribadi atau sosial. Ini bermaksud bahawa perkembangan kewarganegaraan dan sivik memerlukan murid mempunyai pengetahuan, kemahiran dan nilai untuk menangani cabaran dan masalah ke arah pembangunan negara dan kesejahteraan masyarakat.
Untuk membimbing murid dalam pembelajaran penyelesaian masalah, maka pentingnya masalah yang akan diselesaikan adalah relevan kepada diri murid sendiri dan persekitarannya. Ini adalah kerana masalah yang akan dikaji dan keputusan yang diambil akan menjadi lebih bermakna dan boleh dipertimbangkan atau diaplikasikan dalam kehidupannya sebagai warga negara Malaysia atau global.

Secara amnya, pembelajaran penyelesaian masalah dalam PSK akan melibatkan murid sendiri mencari jawapan kepada sesuatu soalan mengenai peranan dan tanggungjawab diri dalam perkembangan sivik dan kewarganegaraan melalui proses inkuiri yang berikut:

Jadual: Proses inkuiri dalam pembelajaran penyelesaian masalah

1. Mengenalpasti dan menghuraikan sesuatu masalah
2. Menentukan pelbagai alternatif atau pilihan serta rintangan masalah dari segi fakta, pandangan dan perasaan watak yang terlibat
3. Memilih stategi yang sesuai untuk menyelesaikan masalah seperti teknik awan, sebab dan akibat, dan konflik resolusi
4. Menguji keputusan tentatif yang dipilih dengan mengumpul dan menilai maklumat yang relevan dengan masalah
5. Membuat keputusan muktamad atau mengubahsuaikan langkah atau strategi yang telah diambil, jika perlu.

Pembelajaran penyelesaian masalah secara aktif dalam PSK akan menjadikan asas kepada murid untuk memahami dan menangani perubahan yang berlaku di dalam kehidupan dan persekitarannya dengan bertanggungjawab dan berkesan sebagai warganegara Malaysia.
Terdapat pelbagai aktiviti pembelajaran penyelesaian masalah yang boleh digunakan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran PSK. Diantaranya ialah:
• perbincangan berkumpulan
• main peranan
• penyoalan
• debat,
• panel juri
• perundingan roundtable
• peta minda atau penyusunan grafik


Adalah sesuatu realiti bahawa masyarakat Malaysia mempunyai kepelbagaian di kalangan anggota masyarakatnya seperti dari segi bahasa, ethnik/kaum, agama/kepercayaan, fizikal, gender, bakat dan kebolehan. Kepelbagaian di kalangan anggota masyarakat inilah yang menjadi kekuatan dan cabaran bagi setiap warga negara Malaysia untuk hidup bersama secara bersatu padu ke arah kesejahteraan keluarga, komuniti dan masyarakat.

Walaupun terdapatnya kepelbagaian dalam masyarakat, setiap warga negara Malaysia mempunyai persamaan yang boleh dianggapkan sebagai identiti warga negara Malaysia. Ini membawa implikasi kepada pengajaran dan pembelajaran PSK iaitu bagaimana mewujudkan kefahaman dan apresiasi kepelbagiaan budaya di kalangan anggota masyarakat Malaysia dan pada masa yang sama menyumbangkan kepada pengembangan identiti warga negara Malaysia yang unik.

Berlandaskan kepada kepentingan memahami dan mengapresiasi kepelbagaian dalam masyarakat dan mewujudkan identiti warga negara Malaysia yang unik, maka agar pentingnya pembelajaran mesra budaya ditekankan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran PSK. Pembelajaran mesra budaya akan memberi peluang kepada murid untuk berinteraksi dan memahami pandangan dan perasaan murid daripada pelbagai latar belakang dan budaya yang lain. Melalui proses pembelajaran mesra sebegini, murid akan lebih menghormati kepelbagaian budaya dengan mengikiskan segala prasangka dan salah tanggapan terhadap sesuatu budaya anggota atau kumpulan masyarakat yang lain.

Pengalaman pembelajaran budaya mesra akan mengembangkan nilai sivik yang penting dalam memelihara hidup secara harmonis dan aman dalam masyarakat kita dan secara global seperti nilai hormat-menghormati, toleransi, kasih sayang terhadap alam sekitar, kepatuhan kepada peraturan dan undang-undang serta nilai patriotik. Untuk mengembangkan pembelajaran budaya mesra, seorang guru PSK seharusnya berusaha mewujudkan suasana pembelajaran yang boleh menggalakkan interaksi dan integrasi yang positif di kalangan murid daripada pelbagai latar belakang dan budaya. Pendek kata, usaha untuk mengintegrasikan murid daripada pelbagai latar belakang dan budaya harus diamalkan oleh seorang guru PSK sama di dalam atau luar bilik darjah.

Terdapat pelbagai aktiviti pembelajaran budaya mesra yang boleh digunakan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran PSK. Diantaranya ialah:

• Projek yang dicadangkan oleh murid sendiri seperti menyedia bahan mengenai “Kenali Malaysia” (Tahun 4 KBSR) atau kempen kesedaran sivik di peringkat sekolah (Tingkatan 1 KBSM)
• Sesi dialog seperti dengan pekerja atau pentadbir sekolah mengenai cara membina sekolah penyayang (Tahun 4 KBSR) atau dengan pihak polis mengenai tingkah laku anti sosial dan agresif dan cara mengatasinya (Tingkatan 1 KBSM)
• Perbincangan
• Menonton filem/video yang berkaitan dengan cara memasak makanan tradisional pelbagai kaum (Tahun 4 KBSR) atau sejarah sekolah (Tingkatan 1 KBSM)
• Drama
• Lawatan


Pendekatan penyertaan murid secara aktif dan interaktif dalam PSK melibatkan pembelajaran berkhidmat atau perkhidmatan komuniti di luar bilik darjah. Melalui penyertaan secara aktif dalam sesuatu projek komuniti, murid dapat mengaplikasikan pengetahuan, kemahiran dan nilai dalam menyelesaikan masalah sosial yang benar-benar berlaku di sekolah, komuniti, negara dan global.

Melalui pembelajaran berkhidmat ini, murid akan mengambil tanggungjawab dan kepemimpinan dalam melakukan sesuatu perkhidmatan sivik kepada masyarakat. Mereka juga akan mengembangkan amalan nilai-nilai sivik serta kemahiran sosial dan kewarganegaraan dalam memberi sumbangan kepada masyarakat. Pendek kata, melalui pembelajaran berkhidmat, murid akan mempelajari secara aktif and interaktif bagaimana menjadi seorang warganegara yang bertanggungjawab dan berkesan ke arah kesejahteraan masyarakat.

Namun begitu, pembelajaran berkhidmat memerlukan sokongan dan penglibatan ibu bapa serta komuniti tempatan. Oleh sedemikian, maka guru PSK atau pihak sekolah perlu mewujudkan sesuatu partnership atau kolaborasi dengan agensi-agensi komuniti tempatan supaya memudahkan murid berhubungi dengan mereka mengenai perkhidmatan komuniti,

Terdapat pelbagai aktiviti pembelajaran berkhidmat yang boleh digunakan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran PSK yang boleh dikategorikan seperti berikut:
• berkhidmat secara langsung kepada sesiapa yang memerlukannya seperti membantu pekerja sekolah membersihkan taman sekolah (Tahun 4 KBSR) atau menghiburkan penghuni di rumah orang tua (Tingkatan 1 KBSM
• berkhidmat secara tidak langsung kepada sebuah organisasi yang bertanggungjawab dalam perkhidmatan seperti mengutip derma bagi mangsa bencana alam dan kemudian menyerahkannya kepada akhbar tempatan yang menguruskan kutipan tersebut (Tahun 4 KBSR dan Tingkatan 1 KBSM)

• tindakan advocacy atau affirmative dengan mengemukakan cadangan atau kempen mengenai sesuatu masalah sosial kepada pihak-pihak tertentu seperti menulis cadangan kepada pihak sekolah bagaimana membina sekolah penyayang (Tahun 4 KBSR) atau menulis surat kepada pengurusan pusat membeli-belah tempatan supaya menyediakan kemudahan awam yang sesuai untuk golongan kurang bernasib baik (Tingkatan 1 KBSM)

Pendekatan dalam Pendidikan Sivik dan Kewarganegaraan KBSR/KBSM melibatkan penyertaan murid secara aktif dan interaktif dalam proses mempelajari bagaimana menjadi seorang warga negara yang bertanggungjawab dan berkesan. Melalui penyertaan yang aktif dan interaktif dalam pembelajaran ini, murid akan memahami dan mengaitkan pengetahuan, kemahiran dan nilai sivik dan kewarganegaraan dalam kehidupan mereka dan seterusnya menjadikan wawasan negara sesuatu realiti.

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Berdasarkan kepada satu tajuk dalam Sukatan Pelajaran Pendidikan Sivik dan Kewarganegaraan Tahun 4 KBSR atau Tingkatan 1 KBSM, dalam kumpulan bincangkan bagaimana melaksanakan strategi pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang berikut:

(1) Pembelajaran aktif
(2) Pembelajaran koperatif
(3) Pembelajaran penyelesaiaan masalah
(4) Pembelajaran mesra budaya dan
(5) Pembelajaran berkhidmat

pembelajaran koperatif


Pembelajaran koperatif membawa maksud belajar bersama-sama dalam kumpulan kecil untuk mencapai sesuatu matlamat. Setiap kumpulan terdiri daripada 2 – 4 orang ahli. Kumpulan yang mengandungi 4 orang ahli adalah yang paling sesuai. Ciri yang paling penting dalam pembelajaran ini adalah kejayaan ahli-ahli kumpulan bergantung antara satu sama lain. Ahli-ahli kumpulan bekerjasama untuk mencapai tahap pembelajaran yang maksimum bukan sahaja bagi diri sendiri malahan bagi setiap ahli dalam kumpulannya.


Pembelajaran koperatif berbeza daripada kerja kumpulan kerana ia mempunyai beberapa prinsip asas. Prinsip-prinsip itu adalah:

Saling bergantungan positif (Positive Interdependence)

Setiap pelajar mesti merasa nasib mereka adalah serupa dan saling bergantung antara satu sama lain untuk mencapai sesuatu matlamat kumpulan. Setiap orang mesti mengambil berat tentang diri sendiri dan juga rakan lain dalam kumpulan dalam mencapai kejayaan. Terdapat beberapa cara untuk menstruktur saling bergantungan positif. Antaranya ialah:

i)Tetapkan matlamat kumpulan yang jelas.
ii)Berikan ganjaran kepada ahli-ahli kumpulan.
iii)Bahagikan bahan sumber di antara ahli-ahli kumpulan.
iv)Berikan peranan sampingan kepada ahli-ahli kumpulan.

Interaksi Bersemuka (Face To Face Interaction )

Ahli-ahli kumpulan perlu duduk berdekatan dan berinteraksi di antara satu sama lain. Corak interaksi di antara ahli-ahli kumpulan akibat daripada saling pergantungan positif yang telah distrukturkan akan menggalakkan pembelajaran setiap ahli. Ini bermakna sebanyak mungkin peluang dan masa perlu diberikan kepada pelajar-pelajar untuk berinteraksi dalam kumpulan supaya mereka membantu, menggalak, dan seterusnya meningkatkan usaha di antara satu sama lain bagi mencapai tahap pembelajaran yang maksimum.

c)Akauntibiliti Individu ( Individual Accountability)

Setiap ahli kumpulan mempunyai tanggungjawab untuk belajar. Kumpulan koperatif bukanlah hanya digunakan untuk mencapai matlamat kumpulan sahaja, tetapi juga bertujuan memastikan bahawa setiap ahli kumpulan akan menjadi individu yang berkebolehan. Ini bermakna setelah menyiapkan sesuatu tugasan kumpulan secara koperatif, setiap ahli kumpulan mesti berjaya menyiapkan tugasan yang berserupa secara bersendirian. Cara menstruktur akauntibiliti individu ialah:

a) Memberi ujian individu kepada semua pelajar.
b) Memilih secara rawak salah seorang daripada ahli untuk menerangkan jawapan kumpulan.
c) Memilih secara rawak satu salinan laporan daripada ahli-ahli kumpulan untuk digredkan.
d) Penglibatan saksama

Kemahiran-kemahiran koperatif untuk bergaul secara berkesan dengan individu lain tidak wujud secara automatik apabila ia diperlukan. Ahli-ahli setiap kumpulan mesti diajar dan juga didorong untuk menggunakan kemahiran-kemahiran koperatif yang perlu untuk mewujudkan kumpulan yang produktif.
Contoh-contoh kemahiran koperatif ialah:
i) Mengikut giliran untuk membuat kerja.
ii) Memberi galakan kepada kumpulan.
iii) Mendengar dengan teliti.
iv) Menerangkan pendapat sendiri dengan jelas.
v) Mengkritik idea tanpa mengkritik orang yang memberi idea.
e) Pemprosesan Kumpulan ( Group Processing )

Ia juga dikenali sebagai membuat refleksi. Proses interaksi dalam kumpulan membolehkan pergantungan dan penyelesaian masalah antara ahli kumpulan dijalankan dengan berkesan. Ini dapat dilihat di akhir perbincangan atau aktiviti pengajaran. Perlakuan yang baik harus diamalkan manakala kelemahan dalam kumpulan harus diperbaiki pada pengajaran yang akan datang. Proses ini memadai jika dilakukan sekali-sekala.
f) f)Kemahiran sosial
Setiap ahli kumpulan peulu mempunyai kemahiran sosialuntuk membolehkan kumpulan koperatif berjalan dengan jayanya. Kagan 91992) menghujahkan kepentingan kemahiran sosial sebagai yang berikut:
Lebih ramai pelajar lepasan sekolah yang gagal memperolehi kerja pertama kerana kekurangan kemahiran sosial daripada pelajar yang kekurangan kemahiran teknikal.

Pemerolehan kemahiran sosial adalah penting dalam kejayaanhidup hari ini.
Pelajar bukan sahaja perlu boleh menyelesaikan masalah, mereka juga perlu kemahiran sosial untuk pergi bekerja di tempat di mana saling kebergantungan dan kerja bersukan adalah amalan biasa.

g) g)Interaksi serentak (IS)

IS berlaku bila mana bekerja atau terlibat secara serentak dalam kumpulan koperatif mereka. Dalam kelas tradisional, interaksi seperti perbincangan atau persembahan berlaku secara tersusun manakala dalam kelas koperatif, perbincangan boleh berlaku dalam setiap kumpulan pada masa yang sama. IS juga mempertingkatkan penglibatan aktif setiap murid dan mempertingkatkan potensi belajar setiap pelajar.


i. Penyiasatan Berkelompok (Group Investigation)

Menurut Sharan & Hertz – Lazarowitz 1980; Sharan & Sharan, 1990, Group Investigation – GI / penyiasatan berkelompok ialah kaedah koperatif yang membolehkan murid merancang melakukan satu kursus pembelajaran. Ini termasuk mengenalpasti satu topik yang disiasat, merancang dan membolehkan penyiasatan serta menyediakan pesembahan terakhir. Ini bermakna penyiasatan berkelompok ialah satu kaedah pengajaran di dalam bilik darjah di mana para pelajar bekerja secara kolaboratif dalam kumpulan kecil untuk memeriksa, mengalami dan memahami topik kajian mereka.

ii) Team – Accelerated Instruction- Mathematics (TAI)
TAI ialah pendekatan menyeluruh kepada pembelajaran koperatif dalammatematik. TAI menyatukan pembelajaran koperatif dengan kebebasan bertindak secara individu iaitu membolehkan guru membentuk kelas matematik heterogenius untuk memberikan murid yang pencapaiannya rendah meningkatkan tahapnya dan mempercepatkan kurikulum biasa sama seperti murid yang tinggi pencapaiannya. Bahan-bahan TAI dapat menggantikan sepenuhnya buku teks dengan bahan yang direka istimewa spesifik untuk program. Dalam TAI, murid ditentukan kepada kumpulan heterogenius iaitu mereka yang mempunyai latar belakang yang berbeza.

iii) Student Team Achievement Division (STAD)

STAD ialah satu kaedah pembelajaran koperatif yang berasal dari Hopkins. Ianya adalah satu kaedah yang mudah dan praktikal. Dalam STAD, guru mengikut satu pusingan mengajar, kumpulan pembelajaran dan penilaian individu. Kumpulan akan memperolehi sijil atau apa-apa penghargaan kejayaan apabila melakukan perubahan berbanding masa lepas sebagai pengiktirafan.

iv) Learning Together (LT)- Belajar Bersama

Menurut Johnson & Johnson (1991), LT bermaksud gambaran oleh ahli kumpulan di dalam kumpul kecil heterogenius secara koperatif untuk saling menyempurnakan matlamat pembelajaran. Bersama-sama ahli kumpulan bekerja keras atas tugasan akademik yang sering melibatkan perancangan serta perpaduan hasil kumpulan. Kemahiran sosial, latihan dan cara memproses diperlukan. Kumpulan yang mencapai kriteria untuk kejayaan sempurna akan berkongsi ganjaran.

v) Jigsaw

Jigsaw telah diperkenalkan oleh Elliot Aronson (1978) dan rakan-rakan. Ia ialah satu daripada model koperatif yang menjadikan pelajar pakar dengan aras yang mereka pelajari. Model ini hampir sama dengan Jigsaw Puzzle. Setiap ahli kumpulan menyumbangkan sekeping puzzle dengan berkongsi sebahagian maklumat yang mereka pelajari. Kunci idea dalam jigsaw ialah setiap pelajar dalam satu pasukan akan menjadi dalam bab tertentu dan bertanggungjawab mengajar apa yang telah mereka pelajari kepada rakan di dalam kumpulan.

vi) Team – Games Tournament (TGT)
TGT telah dicipta oleh Robert Slavin. TGT mengandungi putaran biasa aktiviti pengajaran seperti berikut:

guru perlu memberitahu pelajaran yang berkaitan. Ini boleh jadi dalam bentuk syarahan, demonstrasi dan pertunjukkan visual. Murid berbincang mengenai bahan yang disampaikan oleh guru. Kemudian mereka akan bekerja mengikut lembaran kerja yang disediakan oleh guru untuk menguasai konsep.
vii) b.Pertandingan
Murid-murid bermain permainan dalam pertandingan di atas meja. Setiap pertandingan, meja akan diwakili 3 atau 4 orang ahli dari setiap pasukan yang sama kebolehan akademik.


Sememangnya pembelajaran koperatif ini memberi kesan yang baik dalam pembelajaran matematik. Ini kerana ia mendedahkan murid-murid berkomunikasi dan berkongsi segala apa yang diperolehi bersama.
1.Aronson, Elliot, The Jigsaw Classroom, Newbury, California, Sage Publications, 1978.
2.Alice F. Artzt, Clire M. Newman, How To Use Cooperative Learning In The Mathematics Class. National Council Of Teachers Of Mathematics, 1990.
3.Lorna Curran In Consultation with Dr. Spencer Kagan, Lessons For Little Ones: Mathematics Coorperative Learning Lessons, 1998.
4.David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson, Learning Mathematics ang Coorperative Learning Lessons Plans For Teachers.
5.Nota : Asst. Prof. Krongthong Khairirie.
6.John, DW, Cooperative and Competation: Theory and Research. Interadian Book Co. Edina MN.
7.Robert E Slavin, Coorperative Learning: Theory Research and Practise prentice Hall. Englwood Cliffs, New Jersey. 1990.